Bharata, the wealthiest nation of the world 1 CE

Bharata, the wealthiest nation of the world 1 CE–Artha, ‘wealth’ creation activities of Vedic Sarasvati civilization explain Bharata-Nation’s wealth in 1 CE ca. 34% of Global Gross Domestic Product (GDP)


A dramatic, historic example — a Golden Page in the Story of Civilizations — of Bharata-Nation’s wealth in 4th cent. BCE is seen in a painting in Steel Authority of India Institute in Ranchi. The painting narrates Purushottama presenting an ukku (ಉಕ್ಕುKannada ఉక్కు Telugu) sword to Alexander on the banks of River Jhelum, before the defeated warrior’s return to Mesopotamia. The steel sword made of crucible steel was the hallmark of Bharata’s excellence in metallurgical expertise. In the background of the painting are seen Bharata’s artificers, metalworkers at work in a smithy-forge.

ఉక్కు ukku ukku. [Tel.] n. Steel. Strength, courage, pride, vigour, potency. అయస్సారము, బలము, శౌర్యము. Steadiness. స్థైర్యము. తెలగ ఉక్కు. A very tough sort of steel. R. v. 197. ఉక్కు తీగె ukku-tīge. n. Steel wire. ఉక్కుతునక or ఉక్కుముక్క ukku-tunaka. n. A bit of steel, a brave, sharp or active man. ఉక్కు ముఖి ukku-mukhi. n. The crimson crested barbet, or coppersmith bird, Xantholaema haemaxtocephala. (F.B.I.) ఉక్కుసున్నము ukku-sunnamu. n. Ashes of calcined iron, scoriæ calx.

Sarasvati Civilization (also called Harappa or Indus Valley Civilization) evolved on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati in the Sapta-Sindhu region. Material artifacts of the civilization are reported from archaeological explorations which have evidenced over 2000 archaeological sites (80% of the total 2600+ sites of Harappa or Indus Valley Civilization). These 2000+ sites of Sarasvati Valley account for the substantial artha ‘wealth’ of the civilization since artificers and seafaring merchants from these sites engaged in long-distance trade of Bronze Age resources and products. Hundreds of sites which have been excavated and scores of sites for which detailed excavation reports have been published evidence wealth-creation activities of the artisans and merchants of the civilization.

Matching these artifacts (including over 8000 Harappa Script inscriptions which are metalwork catalogues) with the wealth-creation activities detaled in the ancient texts of the Veda dated to ca. 10,000 years Before Present, a vivid picture emerges about the contributions made by the artisans, artificers, workers and traders of the civilization to the wealth of nations along the Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi to Haifa.

Artha, ‘wealth’ of Vedic Sarasvati civilization in 1 CE is directly and substantially related to the Bronze Age Tin Bronze Revolution in Bharata (India, Vedic rāṣṭram) and long-distance trade which stretched along the Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel).

सोमःसंस्था reported by Valmiki as बहुसुवर्णकbahusuvarṇaka is the economic institutional framework which explains the principal wealth-creation activities of brahma-somāraṇya documented by Kautilya in 4th cent. BCE.

Cultural Itihāsa of Bhārata is narrated in exquisite detail and splendour on data archives of ancient sculptural and writing system traditions, starting from the days of Veda and Harappa Script. These data archives provide information on the wealth of rāṣṭram of Vedic times, ca. 8th millennium BCE which resulted in the status of Bharata as the richest nation on the globe accounting for 33.9% of Global Gross Domestic Product in 1 CE. Bronze Age Revolution alone of arts, crafts, technological excellence and work ethos of the people organized in corporate form of श्रेणि ‘guild’, explains the wealth of the nation (which according to Angus Maddison was close to 33.9% of world GDP in 1 CE).

The full history of the processes leading to the creating the wealth of Bharatam has to be told. A first step has been taken, deciphering the 7000+ inscriptions of the civilization dated from ca. 4th millennium BCE [the early writing system is established by the discovery of a potsherd with Harappa script discovered by Harvard HARP archaeology team (signifying tin smithy) is dated to ca. 3300 BCE].

A synonym for pyrites is: madhu dhātu. A knowledge system of metallurgical processes or madhu-vidyā or pravargya vidyā related to such ores are narrated in the Veda.

Data archives documenting these processes are found in Harappa Script hypertexts and in Yajñavarāha metaphors in Veda texts and sacred Yajñavarāha sculptures with iconographic details as hypertexts.

The discovery of yajñakundas in many sites and the stellar evidence of Binjor yajñakunda with octagonal pillar and Seal with Harappa Script attesting to metalwork of the Bronze Age affirm the civilization as a continuum of Vedic cultura, Soma SamsthA. It is thus apposite to designate the civilization as Vedic Sarasvati Civilization with roots traceable to ca. 8th millennium (evidenced by the Bhirrana archaeological site with carbon-14 dates confirmed between ca. 7570 BCE to 6200 BCE).

Executive summary of सोमःसंस्था, brahma-somāraṇya (reported by Kautilya, 4th cent. BCE)

Work and striving result in creation of wealth from earth’s resources and endowed faculties of the अर्थिन् a. one who longs for or strives to get wealth or gain any object. अर्थार्थी जीवलोको$यम् । आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी Bg.7.16. यजस् n. Ved. Worship; इन्द्राग्नी यजसा गिरा Rv. 8.4.4. Hence, yajña is performance of worship. The governing principle, dharma is: work is worship, which is a prayer to the paramaatman who has endowed the people with competence to relate to environmental phenomena and earth’s resources.

 The ancient people of Bharata who participated in the processes of creation of wealth from Vedic times and during the Bronze Age Tin Bronze Revolution have left for us the legacy of yajña and a writing system called mlecchita vikalpa, ‘Meluhha cipher.’

 These resources constitute a framework of ‘wealth’ as posited in the following sections in a pilgrim’s journey from Being to Becoming:

  1. Ancient Veda tradition, cultural, economic history सोमःसंस्था, brahma-somāraṇya, yūpa, yajñasya ketu
  2. Archaeological evidence of Binjor अष्टाश्रि यूप in yajñakuṇḍa, 2500 BCE
  3. Metonymy — hypertexts in Harappa Script of Bronze Age
  4. Metonymy –Vedic Yajñavarāha metaphors in Veda texts, in sculptures/hypertexts of Veda/Harappa Script tradition

Section 1. ancient Veda tradition, cultural, economic history सोमःसंस्था, brahma-somāraṇya, yūpa, yajñasya ketu

As Narahari Achar has demonstrated, सोमःसंस्था to process soma, is the central yajña in all four Veda-s and that the 191 suktas of Mandala 1 and 10 of Rgveda lay out the plan for the performance of Somayajña. (BN Narahari Achar, Somayajña and the structure of Rgveda, 2016).

sōmḥ सोमःसंस्था a form of the Soma-yAga; (these are seven अग्निष्टोम, अत्यग्निष्टोम, उक्थ, षोढशी, अतिरात्र, आप्तोर्याम and वाजपेय). agniSToma, atyagniSToma, ukthya, Soaśin, atirātra, aptoryāma and vājapeya. संस्था ‘occupation, business , profession.‘

Manasataramgini has shown that all the mandala-s of Rigveda are tightly networked and integrated with the central सोमःसंस्था and hence, the somayajña tradition described in the Rigveda is a definitive sacred text which dates to the time when Vedavyasa compiled the Samhita. It will thus be erroneous to interpret the Samhita text as a layered document, over an extended period of time. The dates of Rishis who are mantra-drashTa-s of specific sukta-s (sets of Rca-s) can be reckoned by astronomical evidences recorded in ancient texts.

 There are three groups of yajña s, depending on the type of offering made to fire in the sacred prayer:

  • haviryajña (b) pākayajña and (c) somayajña. Each of these in turn consists of seven subgroups of


The haviryajña group offering consists of “havis”, such as milk, clarified butter, food- grains, etc.

Pākayajña material offerings include cooked food-grains.

somayajña s in which the offering is the juice of the crushed soma plant made to the deity soma, are

further divided into

(i) aikāha those that are completed in one single day

(ii) ahīna, those that require from two to twelve days for completion

(iii) satra, those that require more than twelve days.

The somayāga ceremony is the holiest ritual, which symbolically transforms the earthly yajamāna into a celestial one.

All these are already well known in the Rgveda samhita, for example, RV (I. 20. 7) refers to the

Twenty-one yajñas.

teno ratnāni dhattana trirāsāptāni sunvate | ekamekam suśastibhih||RV (I.20.7)

“Confer therefore, (Ribhus), moved by our praises, the three-fold riches one by one upon our

yajamāna, who performs the thrice seven-fold sacrifices.”

Yajña in the simplest terms involves the tyāga (the giving up) of some dravya (material possession)

of the yajamāna (the sacrificer) to the devata(deity) through the medium of agni (fire) to the

accompaniment of recitation of mantra s.

Yajña is a journey (adhvaram). At the cosmic level, creation itself is an yajña. yajnena yajña mayajanta deva-s RV(I.164.50; X.90.16) Soma was brought to earth so humans can ascend to heaven with its help.

yajno vai sutarmA nauh |(AB I.19) “yajña is verily the ship of good passage.”

somam rājānam krUNantyauSadho vai somo r ājauSadhibhistam bhiSajyanti somameva rājānam

krUyamāNamānu yāni kāni ca bheSajāni tāni sarvāNyagniSToma mapiyanti ||

“They buy the King Soma. The King Soma belongs to the herbs. They cure a sick person by means of

medicaments taken from the vegetable kingdom. All the vegetable medicaments follow the King Soma as he is being bought. They are thus comprised in the AgniSToma.

The origin of somayajña: the hawk brought soma

As is well known by the legend, soma was originally in heaven, and was brought to earth by the chandas gāyatri. This legend is known in Rgveda :

Rjipi s’yeno dadamāno ams’um parāvatah s’akuno mandram madam |

Somam bharaddād RhANo devāvan divo amuSmād uttaratādāya || (RV IV. 26. 6)

“The straight flying hawk, conveying the plant from afar; the bird resolute with purpose brought the exhilarating soma attended by the gods, having taken it from the lofty heaven.”

ādāya s’yeno ābharat somam sahasram savān ayutanca sākam |

atrā purandhirajah āda rtirmade somasya mUrā amUrah || (RV IV.26.7)

“The hawk, having taken the Soma brought it for the performance of thousands and tens of thousands of yajñas. Here the unbewildered (steady minded) performer of many deeds (Indra) destroyed the bewildered enemies with the help of soma.” (BN Narahari Achar, Somayajña and the structure of Rgveda)

The references to Anzu in ancient Mesopotamian tradition parallels the legends of śyena ‘falcon’ which is used in Vedic tradition of Soma yajña attested archaeologically in Uttarakhand with a śyenaciti, ‘falcon-shaped’ fire-altar.
śyena, orthogra phy, Sasanian iconography. Continued use of Indus Script hieroglyphs

Comparing the allegory of soma and the legend of Anzu, the bird which stole the tablets of destiny, I posit a hypothesis that the tablets of destiny are paralleled by the Indus writing corpora which constitute a veritable catalog of stone-, mineral- and metal-ware in the bronze age evolving from the chalcolithic phase of what constituted an ‘industrial’ revolution of ancient times creating ingots of metal alloys and weapons and tools using metal alloys which transformed the relation of communities with nature and resulted in the life-activities of lapidaries transforming into miners, smiths and traders of metal artefacts.

I suggest that ayas of bronze age created a revolutionary transformation in the lives of people of these bronze age times.

Maybe, Tocharian ancu had the same meaning as Rigvedic gloss, amśu rendered in the sculptural metaphors of Anzu. If so, ancu might have denoted electrum, ‘gold-silver compound’ which was subjected to reduction, by oxidation of impurities, by incessant firing for five days and nights to create the shining wealth of gold. The old Egyptian gloss for electrum was assem, cognate soma, an insight provided by the savant Joseph Needham in his magnum opus.

Soma is associated with the mountains (adri) ‘growing’ on the mountains (giriṣṭhhām) RV. III.48,2; V.43.4; IX.18.1, 62,4.

RV 3.48.2 On the day on which you (Indra) were born, you did drink at will the mountain-abiding nectar of this Soma, for your youthful parent mother (Aditi), in the dwelling of your great sire (Kaśyapa), gave it to you before she gave the breast.

RV 5.43.4 The ten express of the juice, (the fingers), and the two arms of the priests, which are the dexterous immolators of the Soma, take hold of the stone; the exulting, skilful-fingered (priest) milks the mountain-born juice of the sweet Soma, and that Soma (yields its) pure juice. [The text has only śukram amśuh = sa ca amśuh śukram nirmalam rasam dugdhe, and that Soma has milked the pure juice; or amśu may be an epithet of adhvaryu, the extensively present priest, amśur vya_pto adhvaryuh].

RV 9.62.4 The mountain-born Soma flows for exhilaration, mighty in the (vasati_vari_) waters; he alights like a falcon on his own place. [amśu may also be interpreted as metal-streaks in an ore block.)

RV 9.18.1 Effused while pressed between the stones, the Soma flows upon the straining cloth; you are the giver of all things to those who praise you.

Soma is described as parvatāvr.dhah in a rica, that the pyrites are from the mountain slopes:

RV 9.46.1 Begotten by the stones the flowing (Soma-juices) are effused for the banquet of the gods’ active horses. [Begotten by the stones: or, growing on the mountain slopes].

Soma is ‘a god pressed for the gods’ (RV 9,3.6-7).

Gerd Carling, Georges-Jean Pinault, Werner Winter, 2008, Dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A, Volume 1, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Georges-Jean Pinault, 2006, Further links between the Indo-Iranian substratum and the BMAC language in: Bertil Tikkanen & Heinrich Hettrich, eds., 2006, Themes and tasks in old and middle Indo-Aryan linguistics, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, pp. 167 to 196. “…we have Toch. A. *ancu ‘iron’, the basis of the derived adjective ancwaashi ‘made of iron’, to which corresponds Toch. B encuwo, with the parallel derived adjective encuwanne ‘made of iron’…The two forms go back to CToch. oencuwoen- *oencuwo, the final part of which is a regular product of IE *-on…This noun is deprived of any convincing IE etymology…The term Ved. amśu-, Av . asu- goes back to a noun borrowed from some donor language of Central Asia, as confirmed by CToch. *oencuwoen-…the BMAC language would not belong to the Indo-European family; it does not seem to be related to Dravidian either…New identifications and reconstructions will certainly help to define more precisely the contours of the BMAC vocabulary in Indo-Iranian, as well as in Tocharian.” (Georges-Jean Pinault, 2006, Further links between the Indo-Iranian substratum and the BMAC language in: Bertil Tikkanen & Heinrich Hettrich, eds., 2006, Themes and tasks in old and middle Indo-Aryan linguistics, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, pp. 167 to 196.)

“…The contrast between Soma as god and amśu– as material unit is clear from the following mantra (TS 1.2.11a, etc. quoted in SB amśur-amśus te deva somaapyaayataam indraayaikadhanavide ‘Let stalk after stalk of thine swell strong, O divine Soma, for Indra, the winner of one part of the booty!’. It is true that in Vedic literature amśu- refers only to the twigs of the Soma plant and not of any other plant, but it is only to be expected, given the prestige of the hymns, where the word was used in hieratic language for the whole Soma plant: in this poetic usage, it can be explained by a commonplace metonymy, and by the pressure to give many names to Soma… From the Tocharian vocabularies, we have Toch. A. *ancu ‘iron’, the basis of the derived adjective ancwaashi ‘made of iron’, to which corresponds Toch. B encuwo, with the parallel derived adjective encuwanne ‘made of iron’…The two forms go back to CToch. oencuwoen- *oencuwo, the final part of which is a regular product of IE *-on. Nasal enlargement (from: IE *-on-) of nominal stems is very common in Tocharian. This noun is deprived of any convincing IE etymology (cf. Adams 1999:80), which is not surprising, since IE did not have a common word for ‘iron’. The connection with an Iranian form *aśwanya- according to Bailey (1957: 55-56), which does not fit in with the first cluster, was later abandoned (Bailey, Harold W., 1979, Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 32, 487). The CToch. form may reflect a term proper to the Central Asiatic region, cf. Chorasmian hnc’w ‘iron’ (‘iron tip’, see Benzing 1983: 319) < Iranian *anśuwan- (Schwartz, Martin, 1974. Irano-Tocharica. In: Philippe Gignoux & Tafazzoli (eds.), Memorial Jean de Menasce. Louvain: Imprimerie Orientaliste. p. 409): the formal shape is extremely close to the CToch. transposition, so that the Iranian and Tocharian words may have been borrowed from a common substratum language…The primitive system opposed Ved. ayas- (Av. aiiah-) ‘metal of utility’ to hiraNya- ‘noble metal’: the former term originally referred to ‘copper’, later to ‘iron’. I recall that the prominent colour of iron ore is rusty red, reddish-brown. Besides Toch. B eñcuwo (A *añcu), we know several names of metals in Tocharian: B yasa (A was) ‘gold’, B ñakante (A nkiñc) ‘silver’, B pilke ‘copper’, B lant* (adj. lantaṣṣe) ‘lead’…RV VIII.53.4c (Vālakhilya hymn) śiṣṭeṣu cit te madirāso amśavah ‘Among the ś. also the exciting (Soma) plants belong to you (Indra)’. The form śiṣṭa- with variants śīṣṭra-, śīrṣṭra- testifies to a non-Aryan name with ‘intrusive -r-‘ (Kuiper 1991: 7,70).” (Pinault, ibid., p. 189)

I suggest that śiṣṭa– are mleccha, meluhha who are amśavah amśu-, soma-workers’.

RV 8.53.4:

Trans. RV 8.53.4 Smite all our enemies and drive them away, may we all obtain their wealth; even among the śiṣṭa– s are you exhilarating Soma-stalks, where you fill yourself with the Soma

Pinault parallels amśu of Rigveda with añcu of Tocharian and Late Av. asu- ‘Haoma plant’. In Tocharian it means ‘iron’. Tocharin language as an Indo-European language has revealed a word anzu in Tocharian which meant ‘iron’. It is likely that this is the word used for soma in Rigveda

Following this insightful analysis of the Ved. amśu- cognate Toch. añcu- there is a simple strategy to deal with Ved. soma- as a material related to the borrowed word: añcu-‘iron’…As the following are lexemes from Indian linguistic area attest, Ved. soma- might have referred to a metallic ore from the Mount Mujavant:

சோமமணல், s. Sand containing silver, வெள்ளிமணல். (R.)சோமனுப்பு, s. Rock-salt, as இந்துப்பு.(Winslow dictionary)

samanom = an obsolete word for gold (Santali. Campbell lexicon)

sambr.o bica = gold ore (Mundarica)

hom = gold (Kannada)

somnakay = gold (Gypsy)

assem, s’m, asemon = electrum (Old Egyptian. cf. Joseph Needham)

soma = sand containing silver ore (Tamil. Winslow lexicon)

According to RV 10.34.1, the Soma workers bought the resource from the sellers of Mujavata.

Trans. RV10.34.1 The large rattling dice exhilarate me as torrents borne on a precipice flowing in a desert; the exciting dice animate me as the taste of the Soma of Maujavat (delights the gods). [Flowing in a desert: iriṇe varvṛtānah: a reference to the dice; rolling on the dice-board; exciting dice: vibhi_taka, the seed of the myrobalan, used as a die; Maujavat: a mountain, where is said the best Soma is found].

If Tocharian speakers were aware of the Mujavant mountain and if Soma came from this mountain, what did Tocharian’s call Soma? Ancu! ‘iron’. This word ‘ancu’ is cognate with amśu which is used in the Rgveda to describe Soma. Soma was a metallic ore, a compound of silver and gold called by metallurgists as: electrum. Thus, for Rgvedic kavi, description of soma in metaphoric terms comparing it to a plant should not be treated literally as a reference to a ‘plant’. The reference could as well have been to a metallic ore subjected to refining process of smelting in fire which could raise upto 1500 degrees C in a yajña — agnishthoma, for example — which lasted continuously for 5 days and 5 nights.

Substitution of Soma with ‘plants’ is attested in many texts which post-date Rigveda and also in Avesta traditionof haoma, which is clearly a reference to a plant. But, the original reference in the root text of Rigveda can be explained as a metaphor for a metal/mineral ore of the Bronze Age.

Expiatory prayers in Indian tradition apologize to the divinities for the use of a substitute plant (somalataa, e.g. the pūtīka —Guilandina Bonduc?) because Soma had become unavailable. Texts provide an extensive list of plants that can be used as substitutes and end the list by saying that any plant is acceptable, provided it is yellow. (Angot, Michel, 2001, L’Inde Classique, Les Belles Lettres, Paris.)

Tandya Mahabrahmana 9.5.1-3 suggests the use of putika — basella cordifolia? — as a substitute for Soma. Other substitutes (e.g. Satapatha Brahmana 4.5.10; 5.3.3; 6.6.3) mentioned in many Brahmana texts were praprotha, adara, usana and prsniparni (122). Prsniparni had speckled leaves and its wood was used to protect from the negative effects caused by evil spirits. ApSS 14.24,13 suggests the use of rice and barley as substitutes for Soma.

Jaiminiya Brahmana notes that “if they do not find Soma…they should press out Phalguna plants with tawny panicles. Indra killed Vrtra with the Vajra. The Soma which flowed out of his nose, became these Phalguna plants with tawny panicles. And what was produced on account of the drawing out of the omentum, that became Phalguna plants with red panicles. Therefore they press out Phalguna plants with tawny panicles, since these are more suitable to be used in a sacrifice. They say: ‘This (pseudo-Soma) belongs to the Asuras, therefore it should not be pressed out (for a Soma sacrifice)’. (The answer should be:) ‘In the beginning all here was with the Asuras. The gods placed this with themselves after their victory. Therefore it should be used for the Soma pressing.’ If they should not find this (substitute), they should press out Utika plants. Indra having thrown the Vajra at Vrtra but thinking ‘I have not slain him’ entered the Utika plants. Someone whose Soma they steal loses his help (Uti). They find help for him (in the form of the Utika). When the head of the sacrifice was cut off, the sap which streamed forth out of it became the Utika plants. Therefore also they obviously press out sacrifice itself in the form of these Utika plants. If they should not find this they should press out light-coloured grass. When king Soma came to this world, then he stayed in the grasses. This is a trace of him. Thus they press him out (when they press out the grasses). If they should not find this, they should press out the Parna. When Suparna fetched king Soma, then the feather which fell down became the Parna (leaf). That is his trace. Thus they press him out (when they press out the Parna). If they should not find this, they may press out whatever plants there are. When Suparna fetched king Soma and broke him, then the drops which fell down, became these plants. And all plants are related to Soma. That is this trace of him. Him they thereby press out. At the morning pressing one should pour fresh milk, at the midday pressing boiled milk and at the third pressing coagulated milk to (these substitutes of Soma). It is obvious that they also consume this Soma, when they consume milk, for that is the sap of all the plants. (Excerpted from HW Bodewitz, 1990, The Jyotistoma ritual: Jaiminiya Brahmana I, 66-364, Brill, p. 203)

Substrates of mleccha? Vedic, Avestan! soma, haoma

Trans. RV 10.124.3 Beholding the guest of another family, I have created the manifold abodes of sacrifice; I repeat praises, (wishing) good luck to the paternal foe-destroying (race of deities), I pass from a place unfit for sacrifice to a place where sacrifice can be offered. [Beholding the guest: vayāyāh = gantavyāyāh: beholding, i.e., following the course of, the guest, i.e., the sun, who is connected with a different region to be traversed (the sky) than that which is my abode, viz., the earth].

One statement is emphatic in RV 10.124.3 which uses the expression pitre asurAya,’Father Asura’as the primeval world of undivided unity. I suggest that Asura signified mleccha, meluhha speakers.

RV 9.74.4 connects Soma to the cosmic order with the expression, Rtasya nAbhi, ‘the navel of the cosmic order’ in reference to the birth of Soma of life. This expression takes the Rigveda metaphor into a transcendental AdhyAtmika, spiritual plane – again, emphasizing that the references to Soma in chandas text should be interpreted metaphorically. So, it is NOT a plant, it is the phenomenon of some divine intervention in transmutation of mere earth and stones in the medium of fire-altar. It is clear that the text of the chandas is at many levels of prayer, from the gross material resource level to transcendence.

The recurrent refrain of references to Soma is an association with wealth, thus making the processing of this phenomenon an important life-activities of the mleccha, meluhha among Bharatam Janam

RV 9.71.2 The metaphors and narratives of RV 9.71.2 refer to Sauma’s asurya varNam, ‘Asuric colour’ placing asura-s as elder brothers of deva-s declaring them as two moieties (say, dasa-varNa and arya-varNa). Like Varuna, Sarasvati, Agni, Soma is also Asurya. In the course of the yajña, Soma casts off his Asura moiety that is his and becomes deva.

RV9.72.7 Soma is the cosmic pillar which supports the sky in the world centre. This pillar has sahasrbhRSTi, i.e. an epithet of Vajra, with a thousand sharp points elaborated in RV 9.83.5, RV 9.86.40:

Trans. RV 9.83.5 Possessed of water, you go clothed in the liquid water, to the great celestial abode to (take) the sacrifice; as king you ascend to the battle, mounted to your filter-chariot; armed with a thousand weapons you win (us) abundant food. [In the liquid water: havih in contrast to nabhah; to the battle: i.e., the sacrifice].

Trans. RV 9.86.40 The wave of the swee-flavoured (Soma) excites voices (of praise); clothed in water the mighty one plunges (into the pitcher); the king whose chariot is the filter mounts for the conflict, and, armed with a thousand weapons, wins ample sustenance (for us).

One characteristic is that Soma is in plural and signifies vasUni RV 9.15.6

Trans. RV 9.15.6 Overpowering at the juncture of time the discomfited concealers (the rāks.asas), he descends upon those doomed to destruction. [Another reading (St. Petersburg Dictionary): ‘at the juncture of time passing beyond the solid treasures (of heaven and earth), he descends upon the young Soma’].

The significance of Soma as wealth in plural is consistent with the description of the processing in Taittiriya Samhita: अम्शुर अम्शुष ते देवा सोमाप्यायतां इन्द्रायैकधनाविदे (TS 1.2.11a cited in ŚB

Let stalk after stalk of thine swell strong, O divine Soma, for Indra, the winner of one part of the booty!

Jyotishtoma yajña

Avantaradiksa comes to an end and Agnidhriya and Ahavaniya offerings are made. Next morning, Prataranuvaaka is addressed to Agni and Aśvins and offerings made to Indra, Harivant, Indra, Pusan, Sarasvati, Bharati, Indra, Mitra and Varuna. Then the ceremony of fetching waters to mix Soma begins.

This is preceded by the offering of cups of curds, butter or soma when only a few stalks are pressed. In the Vajapeya and Rajasuya yajña Amsu and Adaabhya cups are used. Amsu cup is for sour milk merely touched with soma stalks. Adaabhya cup is for soma. Upabsusavana provides soma for the Upansu cup. Three rounds of pressings ocur: the Adhvaryu, Pratiprasthatr and Unnetr pour the mix into the Adhavaniya vessel filled with water and pass it through a sieve to the wooden tub. Unnetr draws soma from the Adhavaniya with a vessel and pours it into Hotr’s cup. The yajnika pours from it an unbroken stream on the sieve from which the next cups are drawn for offering, the Antaryama, Aindrayaava, Maitraavaruna, Cukra, Manthin, Agrayana, Ukthya and Dhruva. This is the reason why they are called dhaaraagrhas (as distinct from other cups), which are made full from the wooden tub with the vessel called Pariplavaa. Rest of soma is placed in the Putabhrt vessel, retaining a part needed to fill the goblets, camasas of the priests. After libations to atone for loss of drops of soma, bahispavamaana stotra is performed outside the sadas.

Emptied cups are filled again and placed on the back part of the southern soma cart. This is Naaraaśamsa allotted to the fathers as Avamas, Urvas and Kaavyas.

What is the Amsu cup? What is the Adaabhya cup?

May the Amsu cup for me, the Rasmi, the Adabhya, the overlord (cup), the Upansu, the Antaryama, the (cup) for Indra and Vayu, the (cup) for Mitra and Varuna, the (cup) for the Asvins, the Pratiprasthana (cup) the Sukra, the Manthin, the Agrayana, the (cup) for the All gods, the Dhruva, the (cup) for Vaisvanara, the season cups [1], the Atigrahyas, the (cup) for Indra and Agni, the (cup) for the All gods, the (cups) for the Maruts, the (cup) for Mahendra, the (cup) for Aditya, the (cup) for Savitr the (cup) for Sarasvati, the (cup) for Pusan, the (cup) for Tvastr() with the wives (of the gods), the Hariyojana (cup) (prosper for me through the sacrifice).(Shukla Yajurveda, 4.7)

Offspring and cattle are born through the cups, goats and sheep through the Upansu and Antaryama, men through the Sukra and Manthin, whole hooved animals through the season cups, kine through the Aditya cup…(The stone) for pressing out the Upansu (cup) is this Aditya Vivasvant; it lies round this Soma drink until the third pressing. The Upansu is the breath; in that the first and the, last cups are drawn with the Upansu vessel, verily they follow forward the breath, they follow back the breath.(ibid., 6.5)

अ-दाभ्य N. of a libation (ग्रह) in the ज्योतिष्टोम sacrifice (Monier-Williams,p.18).
(cf. Subodh Kapoor, ed., 2002, Encyclopaedia of vedic philosophy, Vol. 2/9, Cosmo Publications, pp.558-561)

Both Avestan haoma and Sanskrit soma derived from proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma. The linguistic root of the word haoma, hu-, and of soma, su-, suggests ‘press’ or ‘pound’. [Taillieu, Dieter and Boyce, Mary (2002). “Haoma”. Encyclopaedia Iranica. New York: Mazda Pub.]  The name of the Scythian tribe Hauma-varga is related to the word, and probably connected with the ritual. The word is derived from an Indo-Iranian root *sav- (Sanskrit sav-/su) “to press”, i.e. *sau-ma- is the drink prepared by pressing the stalks of a plant. [K.F.Geldner, Der Rig-Veda. Cambridge MA, 1951, Vol. III: 1-9] The root is Proto-Indo-European (*sew(h)-)[M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg 1986–2000, vol II: 748].

The root word is also relatable to P. sã̄vā ʻ grey, greyish, green ʼ; N. sāũ ʻ dark – coloured in the following etyma: śyāmá ʻ black, swarthy, dark — blue ʼ AV., °aka<-> VarBr̥S. 2. śyāmā — f. ʻ hen cuckoo ʼ VarBr̥S., ʻ *hen pheasant, hen golden oriole ʼ (opposed to bright cock bird s.v. *lōhiṣṭha — ). 3. *śyāmī — ʻ spleen ʼ (semant. cf. Psht. tōrai ~ tōr ʻ black ʼ EVP 82). [Cf. śyāvá — ]
1. Pa. sāma — ʻ black, dark, golden — coloured ʼ; Pk. sāma<-> ʻ black, dark — blue ʼ; Paš.lauṛ. šāmāk (< *śyāmakka — ), f. šaməč (< *śyāmikkī– ) ʻ black ʼ, kch. nir. weg. sāmek, kuṛ. chil. ṣāmāk (ṣ — after ṣōṇāˊk ʻ red ʼ s.v. śōṇá — 1?); K. śômu ʻ dark blue, dark brown ʼ, hômu ʻ dark grey ʼ, hām f. ʻ dirtiedness ʼ; P. sã̄vā ʻ grey, greyish, green ʼ; N. sāũ ʻ dark — coloured ʼ; A. xāũ, xã̄o ʻ swarthy, lightish dark ʼ; G. sām ʻ black, dark ʼ; Si.sam — van ʻ black colour ʼ. 2. Ash. sã̄ — waċūˊ ʻ hen monal pheasant ʼ (waċūˊ < *vāśuka — Add.), Kt. šōm; Wg. ċām, ċäm f. ʻ hen golden oriole ʼ, Tor. šām f.; Phal. Sh.pales.šām f. ʻ hen of either bird ʼ; K. “haum” f. ʻ hen pheasant ʼ. 3. Bshk. šēm ʻ spleen ʼ, Tor. šam, Phal. šēmi f., Sh.pales. šōm, jij. šō˘m. śyāmalá — ; — śyāmālatā — ? Addenda: śyāmá — : WPah.kṭg. śáũɔ ʻ blue ʼ.(CDIAL 12664).

I suggest that the PIE verb root *sew(h)- ‘to press’ is also relatable to crushing amśu/soma with stones, subjected to yajña in fire, to yield ‘molten metal’ metaphored as a drink. See: Kalyanaraman, S., 2004, Indian Alchemy: Soma in the Veda. cf. S. Kalyanaraman, 2008, Sarasvati: Soma yajña and the Veda. The argument: Rigveda is a metallurgical allegory; soma is electrum ore. cf. S. Mahdihassan, 1991, The vedic gods Agni, Indra and Soma as interrelated: A study of Soma,Indian Journal of History of Science, 26(1), pp. 11-15

yūpa mēḍhā ‘stake’ is an Indus Script hieroglyph rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.), med ‘copper’ (Slavic) The vedic texts use the glosses yupa, skambha, yaṣṭi, vajra while the synonym in Prakritam is mēḍhā ‘stake, pillar.’ Rebus: मेधः mēdhḥ  (com. मेधो युद्धयज्ञः । ‘यज्ञो वै मेधः’ इति श्रुतेः ।), an offering, an oblation. (Samskritam)

An exposition by Sadhashiv A Dange: “the yūpa is described as being the emblem of the sacrifice (RV III.8.8 yajñasya ketu). Though it is fixed on the terrestrial plane at the sacrifice, it is expected to reach the path of the gods. Thus, about the many sacrificial poles (fixed in the Paśubandha, or at the Horse-sacrifice) it is said that they actually provide the path for reaching the gods (ib., 9 devānām api yanti pāthah). They are invoked to carry the oferings to the gods (ib., 7 te no vyantu vāryam devatrā), which is the prerogative of the fire-god who is acclaiemd as ‘messenger’ (dūta); cf. RV I.12.1 agrim dūtam vṛṇimahe). In what way is the yūpa expected to carry the chosen offering to the gods? It is when the victim is tied to the sacrificial pole. The prallelism between the sacrificial fire and the yūpa is clear. The fire carries it through the smoke and flames; the yūpa is believed to carry it before that, when the victim is tied to it, as its upper end is believed to touch heaven. A more vivid picture obtains at the yajapeya. Here the yūpa is eight-angled, corresponding to the eight qurters. (Śat. Br. V.2.1.5 aṣṭāśrir yūpo bhavati; the reason given is that the metre Gayatri has eight letters in one foot; not applicable here, as it is just hackneyed. At Taitt.Sam. I.7.9.1, in this context a four-angled yūpa is prescribed.) The one yūpa is conceived as touching three worlds: Heaven, Earth and the nether subterranean. The portion that is above the caṣāla (ring) made of wheat-dough (cf. Śat. Br. V.2.1.6 gaudhūmam caṣālam bhavati) represents Heaven. This is clear from the rite of ascending to the caṣāla, made of wheat-dough, in the Vajapeya sacrifice. The sarificer ascends to it with the help of a ladder (niśrayaṇī); and, while doing so, calls upon his wife, ‘Wife, come; let us ascend to Heaven’.  As soon as he ascends and touches the caṣāla, he utters, ‘We have reached Heavven, O gods’ (ib., 12). According to Sāyaṇa on the Taiit.Sam. I.7.9.1, the sacrificer stretches his hands upwards when he reaches the caṣāla and says, ‘We have reached the gods that stay in heaven’ (udgṛhītābhyām bāhubhyām). Even out of the context of the Vajapeya, when the yūpa is erected (say in the Paśubandha), it is addressed, ‘For the earth you, for the mid-region you, for heaven you (do we hoist you)’ (Taitt. Sam. I.3.6.1-3; cf. śat. Br. III.7.1.5-6). The chiselled portion of the yūpa is above the earth. So, from the earth to heaven, through the mid-region the yūpa represents the three-regions. The un-chiselled portion of the yūpa is fixed in the pit (avaṭa) and the avaṭa, which represents the subterranean regions, is the region of the ancestors (ib.4).The yūpa, thus, is the axis mundi…Then, it gave rise to various myths, one of them being that of the stūpa of Varuṇa, developing further into Aśvattha tree, which is nothing but a symbol of a tree standing with roots in the sun conceived as the horse (aśva-stha = aśvattha), a symbol obtaining at various places in the Hindu tradition. It further developed into the myth of the churning staff of the mountain (Amṛta-manthana); and yet further, into the myth of Vasu Uparicara, whom Indra is said to have given his yaṣṭi (Mb.Adi. 6y3.12-19). This myth of the yaṣṭi was perpetuated in the ritual of the Indra-dhvaja in the secular practice (Brhatsamhita, Chapter XLII), while in the śrauta practice the original concept of the axis mundi was transformed into the yūpa that reached all regions, including the under-earth. There is another important angle to the yūpa. As the axis mundi it stands erect to the east of the Uttaravedi and indicates the upward move to heaven. This position is unique. If one takes into account the position of the Gārhapatya and the āhavaniya fireplaces, it gets clear that the march is from the earth to heaven; because, the Gārhapatya is associated with this earth and it is the household fire (cf. gṛhā vai gārhapatyah, a very common saying in the ritual texts), and the seat of the sacrificer’s wife is just near it, along with the wives of the gods, conceptually. From this fire a portion is led to the east, in the quarter of the rising sun (which is in tune with such expressions as prāñcam yajñam pra nayatā sahāyah, RV X.101.2); where the Ahavaniya fireplace is structured. As the offerings for the gods are cast in the Ahavaniya, this fire is the very gate of heaven. And, here stands, the yūpa to its east taking a rise heavenwards. This is, by far, the upward rise. But, on the horizontal plane, the yūpa is posted half-inside, half-outside the altar. The reason is, that thereby it controls the sacred region and also the secular, i.e. both heaven and earth, a belief attested by the ritual texts. (Tait. Sam. VI.6.4.1; Mait. Sam. III.9.4).” (Dange, SA, 2002, Gleanings from Vedic to Puranic age, New Delhi, Aryan Books International, pp. 20-24).

The Sukta RV X.101 reads, explaining the entire yajña as a metaphor of golden-tinted soma poured into a wooden bowl, a smelting process yielding weapons of war and transport and implements of daily life:

10.101.01 Awake, friends, being all agreed; many in number, abiding in  one dwelling, kindle Agni. I invoke you, Dadhikra, Agni, and the divine, who are associated with Indra, for our protection. [In one dwelling: lit., in one nest; in one hall].
10.101.02 Construct exhilarating (hymns), spread forth praises, construct the ship which is propelled by oars, prepare your weapons, make ready, lead forth, O friends, the herald, the adorable (Agni).
10.101.03 Harness the ploughs, fit on the yokes, now that the womb of earth is ready, sow the seed therein, and through our praise may there be abundant food; may (the grain) fall ripe towards the sickle. [Through our praise: sow the seed with praise, with a prayer of the Veda; śrus.t.i = rice and other different kinds of food].
10.101.04 The wise (priests) harness the ploughs, they lay the yokes apart, firmly devoted through the desire of happiness. [Happiness: sumnaya_ =  to give pleasure to the gods].
10.101.05 Set up the cattle-troughs, bind the straps to it; let us pour out (the water of) the well, which is full of water, fit to be poured out, and not easily exhausted.
10.101.06 I pour out (the water of) the well, whose cattle troughs are prepared, well fitted with straps, fit to be poured out, full of water, inexhaustible.
10.101.07 Satisfy the horses, accomplish the good work (of ploughing), equip a car laden with good fortune, pour out (the water of) the well, having wooden cattle-troughs having a stone rim, having a receptable like armour, fit for the drinking of men.
10.101.08 Construct the cow-stall, for that is the drinking place of your leaders (the gods), fabricate armour, manifold and ample; make cities of metal and impregnable; let not the ladle leak, make it strong.
10.101.09 I attract, O gods, for my protection, your adorable, divine mine, which is deserving of sacrifice and worship here; may it milk forth for us, like a large cow with milk, giving a thousand strreams, (having eaten) fodder and returned.
10.101.10 Pour out the golden-tinted Soma into the bowl of the wooden cup, fabricate it with the stone axes, gird it with ten bands, harness the beast of burden to the two poles (of the cart).
10.101.11 The beast of burden pressed with the two cart-poles, moves as if on the womb of sacrifice having two wives. Place the chariot in the wood, without digging store up the Soma.
10.101.12 Indra, you leaders, is the giver of happiness; excite the giver of happiness, stimulate him, sport with him for the acquisition of food, bring down here, O priests, Indra, the son of Nis.t.igri_, to drink the Soma. [Nis.t.igri_ = a name of Aditi: ditim svasapatni_m girati_ti nis.t.igri_raditih].

As the yajnika together with his dharmapatni performs vājapeya soma yaga, the attainment of heaven occurs when the yajnika touches the wheat (top-piece) (SBr. This top-piece is the चषालः caṣāla signified by Varāha’s snout and which signifies चषालः caṣāla ‘anna, food’ for pyrolysis to carburize metal into hard alloy, in the smelting process.

 Wheat which is annam is the wheat chaff constituting the चषालः caṣāla. This is the vajra, adamantine glue which achieves the process of caburization in pyrolysis to attain hard alloys.

 The depiction of this wheat chaff is rendered in Indus Script cipher. Hierroglyph: bhūĩ ‘earth’ signified as bhudevi carried on the चषालः caṣāla ‘snout of boar’ varāha Rebus: bhũ ‘wheat chaff’ as annam.

Procedure fo vājapeya soma yaga

Satapatha Brahmana elucidates the process using wheat chaff as चषालः caṣāla, the metaphor is ascent on Yupa to heaven.


atha niśrayaṇo niśrayati | sa dakṣiṇata udaṅ roheduttarato vā dakṣiṇā
dakṣiṇatastvevodaṅ rohettathā hyudagbhavati 

5:2:1:99. He then leans a ladder (against the post). He may ascend either from the south northwards, or from the north southwards; but let him rather ascend from the south northwards (udak), for thus it goes upwards (udak).


sa rokṣyanjāyāmāmantrayate | jāya ehi svo rohāveti rohāvetyāha jāyā
tadyajjāyāmāmantrayate ‘rdho ha vā eṣa ātmano yajjāyā tasmādyāvajjāyāṃ na vindate naiva tāvatprajāyate ‘sarvo hi tāvadbhavatyatha yadaiva jāyāṃ vindate ‘tha prajāyate tarhi hi sarvo bhavati sarva etāṃ gatiṃ gacānīti tasmājjāyāmāmantrayate 

5:2:1:1010. Being about to ascend, he (the Sacrificer) addresses his wife, ‘Come, wife, ascend we the sky!’–‘Ascend we!’ says the wife. Now as to why he addresses his wife: she, the wife, in sooth is one half of his own self; hence, as long as he does not obtain her, so long he is not regenerated, for so long he is incomplete. But as soon as he obtains her he is regenerated, for then he is complete. ‘Complete I want to go to that supreme goal,’ thus (he thinks) and therefore he addresses his wife.


sa rohati | prajāpateḥ prajā abhūmeti prajāpaterhyeṣa prajā bhavati yo vājapeyena yajate 

5:2:1:1111. He ascends, with, ‘We have become Prajâpati’s children;’ for he who offers the Vâgapeya indeed becomes Prajâpati’s child:
5.2.1.[12]atha godhūmānupaspṛśati | svardevā aganmeti svarhyeṣa gacati yo vājapeyena yajate

5:2:1:1212. He then touches the wheat (top-piece) 2, with, ‘We have gone to the light, O ye gods!’ for he who offers the Vâjapeya, indeed goes to the light.

5.2.1.[13]tadyadgodhūmānupaspṛśati | annaṃ vai godhūmā annaṃ vā eṣa ujjayati yo vājapeyena yajate ‘nnapeyaṃ ha vai nāmaitadyadvājapeyaṃ 
tadyadevaitadannamudajaiṣīttenaivaitadetāṃ gatiṃ gatvā saṃspṛśate tadātmankurute tasmādgodhūmānupaspṛśati

5:2:1:1313. And as to why he touches the wheat: wheat is food, and he who offers the Vâgapeya, wins food, for vâga-peya is the same as anna-peya (food and drink): thus whatever food he has thereby won, therewith now that he has gone to that supreme goal, he puts himself in contact, and possesses himself of it,–therefore he touches the wheat (top-piece).

5.2.1.[14]atha śīrṣṇā yūpamatyujjihīte | amṛtā abhūmeti devalokamevaitenojjayati 

5:2:1:1414. He then rises by (the measure of) his head over the post, with, ‘We have become immortal!’ whereby he wins the world of the gods.

atha diśo ‘nuvīkṣamāṇo japati | asme vo astvindriyamasme nṛmṇamuta kraturasme varcāṃsi santu va iti sarvaṃ vā eṣa idamujjayati yo vājapeyena yajate prajāpatiṃ hyujjayati sarvamu hyevedam prajāpatiḥ so ‘sya sarvasya yaśa indriyaṃ vīryaṃ saṃvṛjya tadātmandhatte tadātmankurute tasmāddiśo ‘nuvīkṣamāṇo japati 

5:2:1:1515. Thereupon, while looking in the different directions, he mutters (Vâg. S. IX, 22), ‘Ours be your power, ours your manhood and intelligence ours be your energies!’ For he who offers the Vâgapeya wins everything here, winning as he does Prajâpati, and Prajâpati being everything here;–having appropriated to himself the glory, the power, and the strength of this All, he now lays them within himself, makes them his own: that is why he mutters, while looking in the different directions.

5.2.1.[16]athainamūṣapuṭairanūdasyanti | paśavo vā ūṣā annaṃ vai paśavo ‘nnaṃ vā eṣa ujjayati yo vājapeyena yajate ‘nnapeyaṃ ha vai nāmaitadyadvājapeyaṃ
tadyadevaitadannamudajaiṣīttenaivaitadetāṃ gatiṃ gatvā saṃspṛśate tadātmankurute tasmādenamūṣapuṭairanūdasyanti

5:2:1:1616. They throw up to him bags of salt; for salt means cattle, and cattle is food; and he who offers the gapeya wins food, for vâga-peya is the same as anna-peya: thus whatever food he thereby has gained, therewith now that he has gone to the supreme goal, he puts himself in contact, and makes it his own,–therefore they throw bags of salt up to him.

5.2.1.[17]āśvattheṣu palāśeṣūpanaddhā bhavanti | sa yadevādo ‘śvatthe tiṣṭhata indro maruta upāmantrayata tasmādāśvattheṣu palāśeṣūpanaddhā bhavanti viśo ‘nūdasyanti viśo vai maruto ‘nnaṃ viśastasmādviśo ‘nūdasyanti saptadaśa bhavanti saptadaśo vai prajāpatistatprajāpatimujjayati 

5:2:1:1717. They (the pieces of salt) are done up in asvattha (ficus religiosa) leaves: because Indra on that (former) occasion called upon the Maruts staying on the Asvattha tree 1, therefore they are done up in asvattha leaves. Peasants (vis) throw them up to him, for the Maruts are the peasants, and the peasants are food (for the nobleman): hence peasants throw them up. There are seventeen (bags), for Prajâpati is seventeenfold: he thus wins Prajâpati.

5.2.1.[18]athemāmupāvekṣamāṇo japati | namo mātre pṛthivyai namo mātre pṛthivyā iti
bṛhaspaterha vā abhiṣiṣicānātpṛthivī bibhayāṃ cakāra mahadvā ayamabhūdyo
‘bhyaṣeci yadvai māyaṃ nāvadṛṇīyāditi bṛhaspatirha pṛthivyai bibhayāṃ cakāra yadvai meyaṃ nāvadhūnvīteti tadanayaivaitanmitradheyamakuruta na hi mātā putraṃ hinasti na putro mātaram 

5:2:1:1818. Thereupon; while looking down upon this (earth), he mutters, Homage be to the mother Earth! homage be to the mother Earth!’ For when Brihaspati had been consecrated, the Earth was afraid of him, thinking, ‘Something great surely has he become now that he has been consecrated: I fear lest he may rend me asunder 2!’ And Brihaspati also was afraid of the Earth, thinking, ‘I fear lest she may shake me off!’ Hence by that (formula) he entered into a friendly relation with her; for a mother does not hurt her son, nor does a son hurt his mother.

5.2.1.[19]bṛhaspatisavo vā eṣa yadvājapeyam | pṛthivyu haitasmādbibheti mahadvā
ayamabhūdyo ‘bhyaṣeci yadvai māyaṃ nāvadṛṇīyādityeṣa u hāsyai bibheti yadvai meyaṃ nāvadhūnvīteti tadanayaivaitanmitradheyaṃ kurute na hi mātā putraṃ hinasti na putro mātaram

5:2:1:1919. Now the Brihaspati consecration 3 is the same as the Vâgapeya; and the earth in truth is afraid of that (Sacrificer), thinking, ‘Something great surely has he become now that he has been consecrated: I fear lest he may rend me asunder!’ And he himself is afraid of her, thinking, ‘I fear lest she may shake me off!’ Hence he thereby enters into a friendly relation with her, for a mother does not hurt her son; neither does a son hurt his mother.

5.2.1.[20]atha hiraṇyamabhyavarohati | amṛtamāyurhiraṇyaṃ tadamṛta āyuṣi pratitiṣṭhati

5:2:1:2020. He then descends (and treads) upon a piece of gold;–gold is immortal life: he thus takes his stand on life immortal.

5.2.1.[21]athājarṣabhasyājinamupastṛṇāti | tadupariṣṭādrukmaṃ nidadhāti
tamabhyavarohatīmāṃ vaiva 

5:2:1:2121. Now (in the first place) he (the Adhvaryu) spreads out the skin of a he-goat, and lays a (small) gold plate thereon: upon that–or indeed upon this (earth) itself–he (the Sacrificer) steps.

5.2.1.[22]athāsmā āsandīmāharanti | uparisadyaṃ vā eṣa jayati yo jayatyantarikṣasadyaṃ tadenamuparyāsīnamadhastādimāḥ prajā upāsate tasmādasmā āsandīmāharanti

5:2:1:2222. They then bring a throne-seat for him; for truly he who gains a seat in the air 1, gains a seat above (others): thus these subjects of his sit below him who is seated above,–this is why they bring him a throne-seat.

5.2.1.[23]audumbarī bhavati | annaṃ vā ūrgudumbara ūrjo ‘nnādyasyāvaruddhyai
tasmādaudumbarī bhavati tāmagreṇa havirdhāne jaghanenāhavanīyaṃ nidadhāti 

5:2:1:2323. It is made of udumbara wood,–the Udumbara tree being sustenance, (that is) food,–for his obtainment of sustenance, food: therefore it is made of udumbara wood. They set it down in front of the Havirdhâna (cart-shed), behind the Âhavanîya (fire).

5.2.1.[24]athājarṣabhasyājinamāstṛṇāti | prajāpatirvā eṣa yadajarṣabha etā vai prajāpateḥ pratyakṣatamāṃ yadajāstasmādetāstriḥ saṃvatsarasya vijāyamānā dvau trīniti janayanti tatprajāpatimevaitatkaroti tasmādajarṣabas yājinamāstṛṇāti
5:2:1:2424. He then spreads the goat-skin thereon; for truly the he-goat is no other than Prajâpati, for they, the goats, are most clearly of Prajâpati (the lord of generation or creatures);–whence, bringing forth thrice in a year, they produce two or three 2: thus he thereby makes him (the Sacrificer) to be Prajâpati himself,–this is why he spreads the goat-skin thereon.

5.2.1.[25]sa āstṛṇāti | iyaṃ te rāḍiti rājyamevāsminnetaddadhātyathainamāsādayati yantāsi yamana iti yantāramevainametadyamanamāsām prajānāṃ karoti dhruvo ‘si dharuṇa iti dhruvamevainametaddharuṇamasmiṃloke karoti kṛṣyai tvā kṣemāya tvā rayyai tvā poṣāya tveti sādhave tvetyevaitadāha

5:2:1:2525. He spreads it, with, ‘This is thy kingship 1!’ whereby he endows him with royal power. He then makes him sit down, with, Thou art the ruler, the ruling lord!’ whereby he makes him the ruler, ruling over those subjects of his Thou art firm, and steadfast!’ whereby he makes him firm and stedfast in this world;–‘Thee for the tilling!–Thee for peaceful dwelling!–Thee for wealth!–Thee for thrift!’ whereby he means to say, ‘(here I seat) thee for the welfare (of the people).’


 He then touches the wheat (top-piece)[8], with,

[Page 33] ‘We have gone to the light, O ye gods!’ for he who offers the Vājapeya, indeed goes to the light.

  1. And as to why he touches the wheat: wheat is food, and he who offers the Vājapeya, wins food, for vāja-peya is the same as anna-peya (food and drink): thus whatever food he has thereby won, therewith now that he has gone to that supreme goal, he puts himself in contact, and possesses himself of it,–therefore he touches the wheat (top-piece).
  2. He then rises by (the measure of) his head over the post, with, ‘We have become immortal!’ whereby he wins the world of the gods.
  3. Thereupon, while looking in the different directions, he mutters (Vāj. S. IX, 22), ‘Ours be your power, ours your manhood and intelligence ours be your energies!’ For he who offers the Vājapeya wins everything here, winning as he does Prajāpati, and Prajāpati being everything here;–having appropriated to himself the glory, the power, and the strength of this All, he now lays them within himself, makes them his own: that is why he mutters, while looking in the different directions.
  4. They throw up to him bags of salt; for salt means cattle, and cattle is food; and he who offers theVājapeyawins food, for vāja-peya is the same as anna-peya: thus whatever food he thereby has gained, therewith now that he has gone to the supreme goal, he puts himself in contact, and makes it his own,–therefore they throw bags of salt up to him.
  5. They (the pieces of salt) are done up in aśvattha [Page 34] (ficus religiosa) leaves: because Indra on that (former) occasion called upon the Maruts staying on the Aśvattha tree[9], therefore they are done up in aśvattha leaves. Peasants (viś) throw them up to him, for the Maruts are the peasants, and the peasants are food (for the nobleman): hence peasants throw them up. There are seventeen (bags), for Prajāpati is seventeenfold: he thus wins Prajāpati.
  6. Thereupon; while looking down upon this (earth), he mutters, Homage be to the mother Earth! homage be to the mother Earth!’ For when Bṛhaspati had been consecrated, the Earth was afraid of him, thinking, ‘Something great surely has he become now that he has been consecrated: I fear lest he may rend me asunder[10]!’ And Bṛhaspati also was afraid of the Earth, thinking, ‘I fear lest she may shake me off!’ Hence by that (formula) he entered into a friendly relation with her; for a mother does not hurt her son, nor does a son hurt his mother.

 SBr. ३.७.१.[१८] अथ चषालमुदीक्षते । तद्विष्णोः परमं पदं सदा पश्यन्ति सूरयः दिवीव चक्षुराततमिति वज्रं वा एष प्राहार्षीद्यो यूपमुदशिश्रियत्ता विष्णोर्विजितिम्पश्यतेत्येवैतदाह यदाह तद्विष्णोः परमं पदं सदा पश्यन्ति सूरयः दिवीव चक्षुराततमिति

 Translation of Eggeling is as follows:

  1. He then looks up at the top-ring with (Vāj. S. VI, 5; Rig-veda I, 22, 20), ‘The wise ever behold that highest step of Viṣṇu, fixed like an eye in the heaven.’ For he who has set up the sacrificial stake has hurled the thunderbolt: ‘See ye that conquest of Viṣṇu!’ he means to say when he says, ‘The wise ever behold that highest step of Viṣṇu, fixed like an eye in the heaven.’

 Eggeling’ translation of Sbr. Pt III, Vol. XLI, Oxford, 1894, p.31 says:

“The post is either wrapped up or bound up in 17 cloths for Prajapati is 17-fold.’ The top of the Yupa carries a wheel called caṣāla in a horizontal position. The indrakila too is adorned with a wheel-ike object made of white cloth, but it is placed in a vertical position. (Text) (Translation)

 The process of reaching to heaven (which may be elaborated by a metaphor of obtaining amRtatva as in RV 1.72.1 and RV 3.38.4) is paralleled by the processing of a yajña as detailed in the Satapatha Brahmana:

SBr. ३.७.१.[१८] अथ चषालमुदीक्षते । तद्विष्णोः परमं पदं सदा पश्यन्ति सूरयः दिवीव चक्षुराततमिति वज्रं वा एष प्राहार्षीद्यो यूपमुदशिश्रियत्ता विष्णोर्विजितिम्पश्यतेत्येवैतदाह यदाह तद्विष्णोः परमं पदं सदा पश्यन्ति सूरयः दिवीव चक्षुराततमिति

 Translation of Eggeling is as follows:

 He then looks up at the top-ring with (Vāj. S. VI, 5; Rig-veda I, 22, 20), ‘The wise ever behold that highest step of Viṣṇu, fixed like an eye in the heaven.’ For he who has set up the sacrificial stake has hurled the thunderbolt: ‘See ye that conquest of Viṣṇu!’ he means to say when he says, ‘The wise ever behold that highest step of Viṣṇu, fixed like an eye in the heaven.’

 A horizontally placed vishnu cakra is also a substitute for caṣāla. But the key in archaeometallurgical terms is wheat straw, which is a carburization mediation to harden wrought iron into steel. Thus, climbing up to the entire top portion of the Yupa as a metaphor is the attainment of immortality. This amRtatva in materialistic terms is the acquisition of muhã̄, ‘quantity of iron produced from a smelter’. Hence the mukhamũh ‘face’ ligatured to the sivalinga atop the smelting structure shown on Bhutesvar sculptural frieze.kuTi ‘tree’ rebus: kuThi ‘smelter’

 Notes taken from ‘The symbolism of the Indrakila’ Senarat Paranavitana, Leelananda Prematilleka, Johanna Engelberta van Lohulzen-De Leeuw, 1978, Senarat Paranavitana Commemoration Volume, BRILL 1978, p.247)

caṣālḥ चषालः is a Rigveda citation of a ring atop the Soma Yaga yupa. caṣālḥचषालः is a Vajra, is annam (godhUma गोधूम ‘wheat chaff’ in processes of carburization and pyrolysis).

Process of carburization of metal explained in Vedic text शत-पथ-ब्राह्मण

That caṣālḥ चषालः is godhuma is specified in शत-पथ-ब्राह्मण in Vedic metaphor in chandas textual tradition.

शत-पथ-ब्राह्मण vividly, metaphorically describes Vajapeya ascent on the Yupa to heaven (amṛtā abhūmeti ‘we have become immortal’) with metaphors of गो ‘thunderbolt’ गो-धूम ‘wheat’ rebus: ‘earth-smoke’. The expression गो-धूम can be explained as composed of गो and धूम  Attainment of immortality is a metaphor for the successful processing of Soma yaga yielding Soma, molten metal (hence, the metaphor of Vajapeya, ‘drink of strength or battle’. Hence, the metaphor of vajra, thunderbolt weapon.

गो or गो-धूम is the thunderbolt weapon of Indra. It is चषालः caṣāla and वज्र vajra. धूम is smoke , vapour, mist which emanates from the yupa as a fiery pillar of light during the Vajapeya yajña or Soma processing or smelting process. Orthographically, the चषालः caṣāla is denoted as an अष्टाश्रि octagonal thunderbolt weapon carried by Vajrapani. Rudra is also VajrabAho.

 I suggest that references in Rigveda related to Soma are metaphorical expressions of ‘drink’ in Chandas (Vedic Samskrtam), while the product processed results in a molten state.

According to Rigveda, Taittiriya Samhita and Satapatha Brāhmana, caṣāla on yupa (Skambha) is ‘wheat chaff’ godhuma rendered rebus as hieroglyph: varāha’s caṣāla, ‘snout of boar’. caṣāla as godhuma is annam; it is the carburization process to harden soft metal in yajña kunda. caṣāla mounted on a Yupa which is the Skambha, octagonal in shape, venerated in an adhyatmika enquiry in Atharva Veda Skambha Sukta (AV X.7,8). This is the quintessence of the Yajña in material terms to infuse carbon as a mineral into the carburization or metal alloy hardening process. This results in karaDi ‘hard alloy’. karaNDi is venerated as Agni.

Trans. “That soma is king; this is the devas’ food. The devas eat it.” [Chandogya.Upanishad (Ch.Up. 5.10.4]

This statement of Chandogya Upanishad is an emphatic declaration that Soma is a metaphor.

  1. Mortals do not taste Soma. RV 10.85.3, 4 which suggest that Brahmana and those who dwell on earth do NOT partake of Soma. Similar refrain occurs in Atharva Veda. Hillebrandt and Oldenburg suggest that Soma is a metahpor for the sun or moon.
  2. माक्षिक, the fly, betrays Soma. RV 1.119.9 There is a pun on the word माक्षिक which also signifies ‘pyrites’ (secondary ores).
  1. Reference to Soma in the dual and plural RV 9.66.2,3,5 refer to Soma in dual, or plural (re-inforcing the allegorical nature of the descriptions.

The Vedic texts and translations are given below.

I suggest that these three references point to the allegorical nature of Soma in the Rigveda. Soma is NOT a metaphor for the sun or moon but metaphor for metalwork, working with माक्षिक ‘pyrites’. “The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2….Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veinssedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock, as well as in coal beds.”

 Item 1: Mortals do not taste Soma

Griffith translation: RV 10.85.1-4: 1. TRUTH is the base that bears the earth; by Surya are the heavens sustained. By Law the Adityas stand secure, and Soma holds his place in heaven. 2 By Soma are the Adityas strong, by Soma mighty is the earth. Thus Soma in the midst of all these constellations hath his place. 3 One thinks, when they have brayed the plant, that he hath drunk the Soma’s juice; Of him whom Brahmans truly know as Soma no one ever tastes. 4 Soma, secured by sheltering rules, guarded by hymns in Brhati, Thou standest listening to the stones none tastes of thee who dwells on earth.

soma is not a drink of mortals: “one thinks to have drunk soma, when they crush the plant. Of him (soma), which the braahmanas know, no one ever tastes.”: RV X.85.3; same hymn in AV. XIV.1.3; “No earthly one eats you.” : RV X.85.4; soma is for Indra: “Boldy drink soma from tbe beaker, Indra!…”: AV VII.77; [Hillebrandt and Oldenburg treat soma as a metaphor for the moon or the sun]

This is the clearest statement that references to or attributes of Soma in the Vedic tradition, right from the Rigveda, should be viewed as metaphors. Even when Agni or ghee or Soma are viewed as products, the emphatic statement is that Soma is NOT for human digestion or consumption but associated with divinities, digested by the divinities (deva bhakshyanti) — not by mortals or worshippers in the sacred yajña.

It will thus be an error to interpret Soma as an edible product. Such interpretations that Soma is a hallucinogen or an inebriant are not sanctioned by tradition. If at all there is a refrain metaphor, it relates to processing of Soma to generate or obtain wealth.

There may be some questions raised based on received wisdom that translations refer to expressions of ‘drinking’ soma.

Here for example are two references from Rigveda: RV 8.48.3 nd RV 8.91.1-7

[08-048] HYMN XLVIII. Soma. 1. WISELY have I enjoyed the savoury viand, religious-thoughted, best to find out treasure, The food to which all Deities and mortals, calling it meath, gather themselves together. <337> 2 Thou shalt be Aditi as thou hast entered within, appeaser of celestial anger. Indu, enjoying Indra’s friendship, bring us – as a swift steed the car – forward to riches. 3 We have drunk Soma and become immortal; we have attained the light, the Gods discovered. Now what may foeman’s malice do to harm us? What, O Immortal, mortal man’s deception?

Griffith Translation RV 8.91.1-7

  1. DOWN to the stream a maiden came, and found the Soma by the way. Bearing it to her home she said, For Indra will I press thee out, for Sakra will I press thee out. 2 Thou roaming yonder, little man, beholding every house in turn, Drink thou this Soma pressed with teeth, accompanied with grain and curds, with cake of meal and song of praise. 3 Fain would we learn to know thee well, nor yet can we attain to thee. Still slowly and in gradual drops, O Indu, unto Indra flow. 4 Will he not help and work for us? Will he not make us wealthier? Shall we not, hostile to our lord, unite ourselves to Indra now? 5 O Indra, cause to sprout again three places, these which I declare,- My father’s head, his cultured field, and this the part below my waist. 6 Make all of these grow crops of hair, you cultivated field of ours, My body, and my father’s head. 7 Cleansing Apala, Indra! thrice, thou gavest sunlike skin to her, Drawn, Satakratu! through the hole of car, of wagon, and of yoke.

apAma may also mean ‘obtained’. Here:

आप 1 [p= 142,2] m. obtaining mfn. ifc. to be obtained (cf. दुर्°).n. (fr. 2. अप् Pa1n2. 4-2 , 37), a quantity of water , मल्लिनाथ on S3is3. iii , 72. Thus, the translation of apAma ‘we drank’ is of doubtful validity.

Apala episode is beautiful. What she found was a stone with traces of soma (electrum, gold/silver compound as assem (Egyptian), noted by Joseph Needham).

In RV 8.48.3 ‘We have drunk…’? Amrutam is a metaphor. It means, we have obtained the Soma, amrutam (wealth).

These metaphors can be explainedby some examples of some crystals of electrum ore naturally found which justify such metahpors.

Round Mountain Mine, Toquima Range, Nye Co., Nevada, USA. A rich mass of finely defined octahedrally grown electrum over milky white crystalline quartz. Analysis shows the make up of electrum to be 66.7% gold, 33.3% silver.

Found in sand.Analysis got 73.14% Au 26.13% Ag. So this is electrum as the colour indicates.

Swauk Dist., Kittitas Co. Washington, USA. Very fragile. Found in sand.


Round Mountain Mine, Round Mountain, Round Mountain, Round Mountain District, Toquima Range, Nye Co., Nevada, USA

Electrum Mineral Facts:

Chemical Formula: Au(Ag) Gold and Silver alloy, more than 20% silver by weight.

Colors: Pale metallic gold, streak is the same.

Hardness: 2.5 to 3

Density: 12.5 to 15.5
The density is variable depending on the silver content.

Cleavage: Electrum is ductile and mallable. Also sectile, and can be cut with a knife like lead.

Crystallography: Isometric, commonly octahedral.
Usually in irregular plates, scales or masses, and seldom definitely crystallized.

Luster:. Metallic luster.

I agree with Georges Pinault about ams’u (Soma) as iron.

Avestan haoma (cognate soma) was based on herbal preparation, while Vedic soma of Soma samsthA was based on metallic stones.

Item 2: माक्षिक, the fly, betrays Soma

माक्षिक [p= 805,2] mfn. (fr. मक्षिका) coming from or belonging to a bee Ma1rkP. (Monier-Williams)

मक्षिकः मक्षि (क्षी) का A fly, bee; भो उपस्थितं नयनमधु संनिहिता मक्षिका च M.2. -Comp. –मलम् wax. (Apte)

माक्षिक n. a kind of honey-like mineral substance or pyrites MBh.

उपरसः uparasḥउपरसः 1 A secondary mineral, (red chalk, bitumen, माक्षिक, शिलाजित &c)

Griffith translation: RV 1.119.1-10:1. HITHER, that I may live, I call unto the feast your wondrous car, thought-swift, borne on by rapid steeds. With thousand banners, hundred treasures, pouring gifts, promptly obedient, bestowing ample room. 2 Even as it moveth near my hymn is lifted up, and all the regions come together to sing praise. I sweeten the oblations; now the helpers come. Urjani hath, O Asvins, mounted on your car. 3 When striving man with man for glory they have met, brisk, measurcIess, eager for victory in fight, Then verily your car is seen upon the slope when ye, O Asvins, bring some choice boon to the prince. 4 Ye came to Bhujyu while he struggled in the flood, with flying birds, self-yoked, ye bore him to his sires. Ye went to the far-distant home, O Mighty Ones; and famed is your great aid to Divodisa given. 5 Asvins, the car which you had yoked for glorious show your own two voices urged directed to its goal. Then she who came for friendship, Maid of noble birth, elected you as Husbands, you to be her Lords. 6 Rebha ye saved from tyranny; for Atri’s sake ye quenched with cold the fiery pit that compassed him. Ye made the cow of Sayu stream refreshing milk, and Vandana was holpen to extended life. 7 Doers of marvels, skilful workers, ye restored Vandana, like a car, worn out with length of days. From earth ye brought the sage to life in wondrous mode; be your great deeds done here for him who honours you. 8 Ye went to him who mourned in a far distant place, him who was left forlorn by treachery of his sire. Rich with the light ofheaven was then the help ye gave, and marvellous your succour when ye stood by him. 9 To you in praise of sweetness sang the honey-bee: Ausija calleth you in Soma’s rapturous joy. Ye drew unto yourselves the spirit of Dadhyanc, and then the horse’s head uttered his words to you. 10 A horse did ye provide for Pedu, excellent, white, O ye Asvins, conqueror of combatants, Invincible in war by arrows, seeking heaven worthy of fame, like Indra, vanquisher of men.

A reference to mAkshika in RV 1.119.9 is a pun on the word: mAkshika ‘fly’ mAkshika ‘pyrites’

To you, O Aswins, that fly betrayed the soma: RV 1.119.9

Alternative trans. RV 1.119.9: “The bee desirous of honey sang praise-song for you. Aushij in delight of Soma tells how Dadhichi, told you the secret of his mind after the head of his horse was cured.”

One interpretation is framed on Vedanta: “Chandogya Upanishad (III.i.1) begins teaching Madhu Vidya by stating – The Sun is verily honey to the Devas (VasusRudrasAdityasMaruts and

Sadhyas), the Heaven is like the cross-beam, the intermediate region is the beehive; and the rays are the sons. But, this vidya does not teach meditation on Devas but on Brahman who is also known by the names Devas are known; it is a Brahma-vidya.”

The interpretation used in this monograph is to treat the text at the material process level of processing soma as metallic mineral resource, evaluating the text as metaphorical renderings..

Makshika as pyrites are used in metalwork: “maakshikam (pyrites), digested hundred times with juice of plantain leaves, and then steeped for three days in oil, clarified butter and honey, and then heated strongly in a crucible yields its essence” (alchemical treatise: Rudrayamala Tantra, cited in P.Ray, History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India, p.157).

Note the pun on the word, ma_ks.ika_ meaning both ‘bee’ and ‘pyrites or quartz’. ma_ks.ika_ are pyrites; hema ma_ks.ika_ and ta_ra ma_ks.ika_ denote gold and silver pyrites. Rasaratna Samuccaya 77,81, 89-90: ma_ks.ikam is born of mountains yielding gold… Almost all epithets attributed to Soma (such as amśu [śukram or bright, pure metallic ore protrusions analagous to shoots of a plant], golden, yellow, shining, resplendent, flowing,  filtering: pavitram; crushing on stones; provenance of soma in mountainous  terrain) can be explained by this metallurgical-allegorical identification. Even the reference to the seller from Mt. Mujavant who is paid and chased away after taking delivery of the ore product can be explained in the braahman.a days  involving the secretive alchemical processes (agni-rahasya; somanala yantra);  these practices continue into the Arthaśaastra days with an extraordinary role  played by the Adhvaryu in a political nexus within the king’s domain.

If you are looking for gold and cannot tell the difference between the second photo, of pyrite on a gold nugget, then you will find lots of pyrite, but no gold. Pyrite is referred to as “Fools Gold”, since many a prospector brought home the shiny Iron Sulfate, and staked claims on their “gold ” deposit, which turned out to be pyrite. All that glitters is not gold.

Pyrite. Named in antiquity from the Greek “pyros” for “fire” because sparks flew from it when hit with another mineral or a metal. Pyrites are referred to akkinikkal ‘flint, pyrites’ (lit. agni stone) in Tamil.  Mākshika has also the meaning of ‘madhu’ in Suśruta. It is also a honey-like mineral substance of pyrites in Mahabharata. A synonym for pyrites is: madhu dhātu (Skt.)

In the context of metallurgy, mākshikā is a technical term, referring to pyrites.

Item 3: Reference to Soma in the dual and plural

Griffith translation: RV 9.66.1-5: 1. For holy lore of every sort, flow onward thou whom all men love. A Friend to be besought by friends. 2 O’er all thou rulest with these Two which, Soma Pavamana, stand, Turned, as thy stations, hitherward. 3 Wise Soma Pavamana, thou encompassest on every side Thy stations as the seasons come. 4 Flow onward, generating food, for precious boons of every kind, A Friend for friends, to be our help. 5 Upon the lofty ridge of heaven thy bright rays with their essences, Soma, spread purifying power.

It is extraordinary that soma is referred to in dual, or plural (re-inforcing

the allegorical nature of the descriptions): “with those two forms” (RV

IX.66.2,3,5); “the forms (plural, not dual) that are thine” (RV IX.66.3); “the

shining rays spread a filter on the back of the heaven, O soma, with (thy) forms

(plural, not dual)” (RV IX.66.5); the dual reference is to the ore-form and the

purified/processed form.

सोमःसंस्था a principal source of wealth for the ancient state, brahma-somāraṇya (4th cent. BCE Kauṭilya’s ArthaŚāstra.2.2.2) produces State revenue.

Artha is the sustenance or livelihood of people. A sutra enunciated: dharmasya mUlam artham, the basis for discharge of one’s responsibility is wealth.

The sequential refrain of Canakya NIti is: sukhasya moolam dharmam. Dharmasya moolam artham  Arthasya moolam rajyam. Rajyasya moolam indriya vijayam.

Kauṭilya expounds on the role of the State and training of the crown prince in Chapter I with statements such as: Without government, rises disorder as in the Matsya nyayamud bhavayati (proverb on law of fishes). In the absence of governance, the strong will swallow the weak. In the presence of governance, the weak resists the strong— ArthaŚāstra 1.4

The very second chapter devoted to artha starts with bhūmichidravidhāna focussing principally on wealth from forest areas. One such forest area which is a source of wealth – artha – for the state is (of uncultivable land) is brahma-somāraṇya (AŚ.2.2.2.), that is forest area assigned to Brahmans and ascetics. Brahmans and ascetics saw the Aranyakas, principal documents of the Vedic narratives, enquiries and life-activities.

It appears from the prominent role assigned to artha ‘wealth’ from brahma-somāraṇya (AŚ.2.2.2.) that Soma samsthA were major wealth-producing activities related to such forest areas: brahma-somāraṇya (AŚ.2.2.2.).

It appears that सोमःसंस्था particularly from brahma-somāraṇya — i.e. from uncultivated forest lands — were the principal sources of revenue of the State together with the land revenues collected from cultivable lands. This aspect of life in Ancient India is an area for further researches.

Division of land

bhūmichidravidhāna (AŚ.2.2) भूमि–च्छिद्र [p= 1331,2] land unfit for cultivation, Inscr.

THE King shall make provision for pasture grounds on uncultivable tracts. Bráhmans shall be provided with forests for brahma-somāraṇya (should be translated as: forests assigned for Soma yaga, see below), for religious learning, and for the performance of penance, such forests being rendered safe from the dangers from animate or inanimate objects, and being named after the tribal name (gótra) of the Bráhmans resident therein. A forest as extensive as the above, provided with only one entrance rendered inaccessible by the construction of ditches all round, with plantations of delicious fruit trees, bushes, bowers, and thornless trees, with an expansive lake of water full of harmless animals, and with tigers (vyála), beasts of prey (márgáyuka), male and female elephants, young elephants, and bisons—all deprived …Manufactories to prepare commodities from forest produce shall also be set up. (2.2.2, pp.65, 66)

 Notes on brahma-somāraṇya (AŚ.2.2.2.)

For settlement of ascetics and BrAhmanas devoted to the study of the Vedas, two types of forests wre identified: tapovana and brahma-somAraNya (AS 2.2.2)

ब्रह्मा* रण्य [p= 740,3]  n. ” holy forest ” , a grove in which the वेद is studied L. brahman ब्रह्मन् One conversant with sacred knowledge -अरण्यम् 1 a place of religious study (Apte) BrahmAraNya mahAtmya is the name of a work.

Forest produce was dravyavana distinguished from hastivana which are animal sanctuaries. SamAharta. Dravyavana and brahmAraNya Protection against hindrances to such brahmAraNya had to be given priority by the State officials.

Within the boundary of the forest-area, Kupyādhyakṣa (Director, Forest Produce under the control of Samāhartā) was “to make arrangements, for the settlement of the foresters or forest-dwellers connected with the produce forests (aṭavīmśca dravyavanāpaśrayāh)- AŚ.2.2.5) and they were to preserve and protect forests from various hazards… Kālāyasa (iron), tāmra (copper), vṛtta (steel), kāmsa (bronze), sīsa (lead), trapu (tin), vaikṛntaka (mercury) and ārakūṭa (brass) are included in the group of base metals. These metals were intended for preparing ploughs, pestles, which provided livelihood (ājīva), and machines, weapons, etc. for protection of the city (purarakṣā) (AŚ. 2.17.17). It may be presumed that separate factories were established in forest zones for each class of production. In this context, Kauṭilya advises the Master of the Armoury (Āyudhāgārdhyakṣa) to be conversant with the raw, defence material in the forests and their qualities and to avoid any adulteration (AŚ.2.18.20)… In the capital there was a store–house for forest produce (kupyagrha), built under the supervision of the Director of Stores (Sannidhātā) (AŚ.2.5.1).” (Manubendu Banerjee, 2011, Kauilya’s Arthasastra on Forestry in: Sanskrit Vimarśah, pp. 121-132), pp.123,127,128)

Director of mines (Ākarādhyakṣa) (AŚ. 2.12) controlled the production of ores from mines.

Kupyādhyakṣa was in charge of setting up factories in the forests for producing serviceable articles (AS 2.17.2). Chief Ordnance Officer (Āyudhāgārādhyakṣa) supervised the business based on various types of forest-produce in the factories (AŚ. 2.18.20). Such factories most of the weapons. Guards who protected the factories were dravyavanapāla.

brahma-somāraṇya was thus a source of wealth from सोमःसंस्था and also a source for production of metal implements brought into Āyudhāgāra (State Armoury). This possibility is indicated by the evidence for performance of a Soma Yaga in Binjor (ca. 2500 BCE). The evidence is a yajña kunda with an octagonal pillar, a signature pillar of a Soma Yaga, together with an Indus Script inscription.

अष्टाश्रि ‘having eight corners’ (Vedic) yupa in Indus Script tradition signifies medha, अहीन सत्त्र soma yajña validated by19 yupa inscriptions.

 I suggest that Soma processing is metaphor for a metalwork process using the annam or godhuma or caṣāla atop an octagonal Yupa in a yajña kunda as seen on Binjor Yupa which is octagonal. This annam is for the divinities and NOT for the mortals. Soma aka amsu is ancu ‘iron’ or ‘iron-electrum’ compound ores from Mt. Mujavant.

Soma, wealth

“Ich habe nicht den Eindruck, dass die Pflanze, welche einst den Vorvätern der vedischen Inder als die trefflichste galt, notwendig eins mit der gewesen sein muss, welche von ihren Naehkommen in indischen Landen zur Gewinnung ihres Göttertrankes gebraucht wurde.” (Hillebrandt, Alfred, 1891, Vedische Mythologie I: Soma und verwandte Goetter. Breslau: Koebner.)

Soma prayers are for acquiring wealth

*ancu– ‘iron’ in Tocharian (cognate Ved. amśu-) discussed by Georges-Jean Pinault (2006). The strategy is to aver that Ved. amśu- as a borrowed word from Tocharian had the cognate semantics ‘metal’, while *añcu- (Tocharian) meant ‘iron’. And, in the poetic metaphors which are abundant in Vedic copora, the characterisics of soma- as ‘metal’ processed in yajña, are elaborated by the kavi- ‘smiths’. (The key is in the proto-indic lexeme: kavi, semant. ‘smith, poet’. Cognate, kayanian, cf. Christensen, A.,1932, Les Kayanides. Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Sellskab, Hist.-Filos. Meddelelser XIX.2. Copenhagen). cf. S. Kalyanaraman, 2000, Rgvedic Soma as a metallurgical allegory; soma, electrum is deified. 

RV 1.116.12 I proclaim, leaders (of sacriifce), for the sake of acquiring wealth, that inimitable deed which you performed, as the thunder (announces) rain, when provided by you with the head of a horse. Dadhyan~c, the son of Atharvan, taught you the mystic science. [Legend: Vana Parva, Mahābhārata: gods, being oppressed by the Kālakeya asura-s, solicited from the sage Dadhica his bones, which he gave them, and from which Tvas.t.a fabricated the thunderbolt with which Indra slew Vr.tra and routed the asuras. The text: Indra, having taught the science called pravargya vidyā and madhuvidyā to Dadhyan~c, threatened that he would cut off his head if ever he taught them to any one else; the Aśvins prevailed upon him, nevertheless, to teach them the prohibited knowledge, and, to evade Indra’s threat, took off the head of the sage, replacing it by that of a horse; Indra, apprised of Dadhyan~c’s breach of faith, sturck off his equine head with the thunderbolt; on which, the Aśvins restored to him his own. The pravargya vidyā is said to imply certain verses of the r.k, yajur and sāma vedas, and the madhu-vidyā the BrāhmaNa].

RV 1.117.22 You replaced, Aśvins, with the head of a horse, (the head of) Dadhyan~c, the son of Atharvan, and, true to his promise, he revealed to you the mystic knowledge which he had learned from Tvas.t.a_, and which was as a ligature of the waist to you. [Tvas.t.a_ = Indra; the knowlege was kaks.yam. vām = a girdle to you both; strengthening them to perform religious rites].

RV 1.119.09 That honey-seeking bee also murmured your praise; the son of Usij invokes you to the exhilaratin of Soma; you conciliated the mind of Dadhyan~c, so that, provided with the head of a horse, he taught you (the mystic science).

Alternative trans.: To you, O Aswins, that fly betrayed the soma… maakshika = pyrite ores; fly. cf. “maakshikam (pyrites), digested hundred times with juice of plantain leaves, and then steeped for three days in oil, clarified butter and honey, and then heated strongly in a crucible yields its essence” (alchemical treatise: Rudrayamala Tantra, cited in P.Ray, History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India, p.157).

RV 1.119.10 Aśvins, you gave to Pedu the white (horse) desired by many, the breaker-through of combatants, shining, unconquerable by foes in battle, fit for every work; like Indra, the conquerer of men.

Valmiki refers to Garuda smashing the iron-grid guard (ayah jaalaani).

Meaning of the word, amśu used by Valmiki

prasrutaH sarva gaatrebhyaH svedaH shoka agni sambhavaH |
yathaa suurya amshu samtaptaH himavaan prasrutaH himam
|| 2-85-18

Perspiration born of fieriness of grief poured off from all his limbs, as the snow heated by solar rays melts and flows from Himavat mountain

dhyaana nirdara shailena vinihshvasita dhaatunaa |
dainya paadapa samghena shoka aayaasa adhishR^ingiNaa
|| 2-85-19
pramoha ananta sattvena samtaapa oSadhi veNunaa |
aakraantaH duhkha shailena mahataa kaikayii sutaH
|| 2-85-20

Bharata, the son of Kaikeyi was pressed by the weight of that colossal mountain of agony consisting of rocky caverns in the shape of settled contemplations on Rama, minerals in the shape of groans and sighs, a cluster of trees in the shape of depressive thoughts, summits in the form of sufferings and fatigue, countless wild beasts in the shape of swoons, herbs and bamboos in the form of his exertions.

The semantic component of ‘clothing or cover’ and Marathi compound: अंशुजाल [aṃśujāla] is consistent with the garuḍa narrative of breaking the ayah jālāni ‘iron-grid or iron-net’ shield of a metamorphic mineral compound, to get to the ambrosia, amṛtam — soma.

अंशु [Monier-Williams lexicon, p. 1,1] [L=47] m. a filament (especially of the सोम plant), a kind of सोम libation S3Br., thread, end of a thread, a minute particle, a point, end, a ray , sunbeam. Cf. अग्रांशु [agrāṃśu] m S The extremity of a ray of light; the focal point. अंशुजाल [aṃśujāla] n S A collection of (sun-) beams, a pencil of rays. (Marathi)

अंश means partial incarnation, अंश, आवेश, and अवतार are the three kinds of Lord’s manifestations. अंशकम् A solar day. अंशिन् a. Having parts or members (अवयविन्); अंशिनः स्वांशगात्यन्ताभावं प्रति मृषात्मतां -Ved. Paribhāṣā. अंश्य a. [अंश्-कर्मणि यत्] Divisible. अंशुः [अंश्-मृग˚ कु.] 1 A ray, beam of light; चण्ड˚, घर्मं˚ hot-rayed the sun; सूर्यांशुभिर्भिन्नमिवारविन्दम् Ku.1.32; Iustre, brilliance चण्डांशुकिरणाभाश्च हाराः Rām.5.9.48; Śi.1.9. रत्न˚, नख˚ &c. -2 A point or end. -3 A small or minute particle. – 4 End of a thread. -5 A filament, especially of the Soma plant (Ved.) -6 Garment; decoration. -7 N. of a sage or of a prince. -8 Speed, velocity (वेग). -9 Fine thread -Comp. -उदकम् dew-water. -जालम् a collection of rays, a blaze or halo of light. -धरः -पतिः -भृत्-बाणः -भर्तृ-स्वामिन् the sun, (bearer or lord of rays). -पट्टम् a kind of silken cloth (अंशुना सूक्ष्मसूत्रेणयुक्तं पट्टम्); सश्रीफलैरंशुपट्टम् Y. 1.186; श्रीफलैरंशुपट्टानां Ms.5.12. -माला a garland of light, halo. -मालिन् m. [अंशवो मालेव, ततः अस्त्यर्थे इनि] 1 the sun (wreathed with, surrounded by, rays). -2 the number twelve. -हस्तः [अंशुः हस्त इव यस्य] the sun (who draws up water from the earth by means of his 1 hands in the form of rays). अंशुमत् aṃśumat अंशुमत् a. [अंशु-अस्त्यर्थे मतुप्] 1 Luminous, radiant; ज्योतिषां रविरंशुमान् Bg.1.21. -2 Pointed. -3 Fibrous, abounding in filaments (Ved.) -m. (˚मान्)1 The sun; वालखिल्यैरिवांशुमान् R.15.1; अंशुमानिव तन्वभ्रपटलच्छन्नविग्रहः Ki.11.6; जलाधारेष्विवांशुमान् Y.3.144; rarely the moon also; ततः स मध्यंगतमंशुमन्तं Rām.5.5.1. -2 N. of the grandson of Sagara, son of Asamañjasa and father of Dilīpa. -3 N. of a mountain; ˚मत्फला N. of a plant, कदली Musa sapientum or Paradisiaca. -ती 1 N. of a plant सालपर्णी (Mar. डवला, सालवण) Desmodium Gangeticum. -2 N. of the river Yamunā. अंशुकम् aṃśukam अंशुकम् [अंशवः सूत्राणि बिषयो यस्य; अंशु ऋश्यादि˚ क] 1 A cloth, garment in general; सितांशुका मङ्गलमात्रभूषणा V.3.12; यत्रांशुकाक्षेपविलज्जितानां Ku.1.14; चीनांशुकमिव केतोः Ś.1.33; स्तन˚ a breast-cloth. -2 A fine or white cloth; धुन्वन् कल्पद्रुमकिसलयान्यंशुकानीव वातैः Me.64; usually silken or muslin. -3 An upper garment; a mantle. -4 An under garment; कररुद्धनीविगलदंशुकाः स्त्रियः Śi.13.31. -5 A leaf. -6 Mild or gentle blaze of light (नातिदीप्ति) (कः also; स्वार्थे कन्.) -7 The string of a churning stick. cf अंशुकं नेत्रवस्त्रयोः । cf. also अंशुकं सूक्ष्मवस्त्रे स्यात् परिधानोत्तरीययोः । किरणानां समूहे च मुखवस्त्रे तदिष्यते ॥ Nm. अंशुल aṃśula अंशुल a. Radiant, luminous. -लः [अंशुं प्रभां बुद्धिप्रतिभां लाति, or अंशुरस्य अस्तीति ला-क] N. of Chāṇakya; of any sage. [Apte’s lexicon] అంశుకము [ aṃśukamu ] amṣukamu. [Skt.] n. Cloth, a robe, వస్త్రము, పైటకొంగు. అంశువు [ aṃśuvu ] amṣuvu. [Skt.] n. A ray or light, a beam. కిరణము. అంశుజాలము amṣujālamu. [Skt.] n. A garland of the rays of light, a halo.అంశుమాలి amṣu-māli. [Skt.] n. He who is girded with rays. An epithet of the sun. సూర్యుడు. అంశుమంతుడు amṣuman-tuḍu. [Skt.] n. The sun or moon. సూర్యుడు. A rich man. (Telugu) aṁśú m. ʻ filament esp. of soma — plant ʼ RV., ʻ thread, minute particle, ray ʼ.Pa. aṁsu — m. ʻ thread ʼ; Pk. aṁsu — m. ʻ sunbeam ʼ; A. ã̄h ʻ fibre of a plant ʼ, OB. ã̄su; B. ã̄s ʻ fibre of tree or stringy fruit, nap of cloth ʼ; Or. ã̄su ʻ fibrous layer at root of coconut branches, edge or prickles of leaves ʼ, ã̄s f. ʻ fibre, pith ʼ; — with — i — in place of — u — : B. ã̄iś ʻ fibre ʼ; M. ã̄sī˜ n. ʻ fine particles of flattened rice in winnowing fan ʼ; A. ãhiyā ʻ fibrous ʼ. (CDIAL 4) aṁśuka ʻ *fibrous ʼ, n. ʻ cloth, garment ʼ lex. [aṁśú — ] Pk. aṁsuya — n. ʻ cloth ʼ; A. ã̄hu ʻ coloured thread ʼ; B. ã̄suyā ʻ fibrous, stringy ʼ, Or. ãsuā. (CDIAL 5) áṁsiya — , áṁsya ʻ belonging to the shoulder ʼ RV., Ku. ã̄sī ʻ scythe ʼ; N. hã̄siyo ʻ sickle ʼ, B. hã̄siyā, H. hãsiyā, has° m. — With — u — : Bi. hãsuā ʻ sickle ʼ; G. hã̄svɔ m. ʻ hoe ʼ. (CDIAL 7) áṁsa m. ʻ shoulder, shoulder — blade ʼ RV.Pa. Pk. aṁsa — m. ʻ shoulder ʼ; L. añj — vañj m. pl. ʻ limbs ʼ, awāṇ. añj — bâmacr;; Si. as ʻ shoulder ʼ. — With h — (from haḍḍa<-> ʻ bone ʼ ?): S.hañjhī f. ʻ shoulder — blade ʼ, L. (Jukes) hãjī f.; H. hã̄s m. ʻ collar — bone ʼ; G. hã̄sṛī f. ʻ collar ʼ. — Ext. — la — : Pk. aṁsalaga — m. ʻ shoulder ʼ; haṁsala — m. ʻ sort of ornament ʼ; P. haslī f. ʻ gold or silver collar ʼ, N. hã̄suli ʻ collar ʼ, H. hãslī f., M. hã̄sḷī f. — Loans from the centre with (s)s: S.hasu m. ʻ silver collar ʼ; L. mult. hassī f. ʻ collarbone, silver collar ʼ, awāṇ. has ʻ neck — bone ʼ; P. hass m., °sī f. ʻ shoulderblade ʼ.(CDIAL 6) áṁsya of Rigveda may refer to a metallic scythe (sickle), cognate with Ku. ã̄sī ʻ scythe ʼ. Aŋsa [see next] point, corner, edge; freq. in combn with numerals, e. g. catur˚ four — cornered, chaḷ˚, aṭṭh˚, soḷas˚ etc. (q. v.) all at Dhs 617 (cp. DhsA 317). Aŋsu [cp. Sk. aŋśu (Halāyudha) a ray of light] a thread Vin iii.224. — mālin, sun Sāsv 1. (Pali) அம்சபூதன் amca-pūtaṉ, n. < aṃša- bhūta. One who forms part, as of a deity; அமிசமாயிருப்பவன். நம்முடைய அம்சபூத ரொருவரை (குருபரம். 166).(Tamil) அமிசை amicai, n. < aṃša. Lot; தலை யெழுத்து (destiny). ஆசை யிருக்கிறது தாசில்பண்ண, அமிசை யிருக்கிறது கழுதை மேய்க்க. Semantics of अंशुकं help identify अंशु which is a ‘clothing or cover’ to ‘soma’.

When the rṣi-s employ the poetic metaphors in the vedic allegory related to soma, the reference to अंशु is an enveloping mineral compound – ‘iron’ element called अंशु covering the core dhātu – soma, ‘electrum’. Radiance of the ‘sun’ in the phrase used by Valmiki, suryāmśu samtaptah can be explained as the heating by radiant mineral अंशु In a poetic exposition, Valmiki uses the term amśu to describe the sun’s heat: suryāmśu samtaptah (‘heated by sunbeam’) and vinihśvasita dhātunā (‘minerals in the shape of groans and sighs’). In the context of the poet’s metaphor, the word amśu cannot be explained as related to part of a plant (e.g. ‘stalk’).

Electrum is a natural alloy of gold with at least 20 percent silver and contains also copper, iron, palladium, bismuth and perhaps other metals. ‘The colour varies from white-gold to brassy, depending on the percentages of the major constituents and copper.’ (Encyclopaedia Britannica).

Greek word ἤλεκτρον (elektron) mentioned in the Odyssey meaning a metallic substance consisting of gold alloyed with silver. The same word was also used for the substance amber, probably because of the pale yellow color of certain varieties, and it is from the electrostatic properties of amber that the modern English words “electron” and “electricity” derive. Electrum was often referred to as white gold in ancient times but could be more accurately described as “pale gold”.

Manhattan, Manhattan District, Nye Co., Nevada, USA. 1.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 cm. Electrum is a rare natural amalgam of gold and silver (sometimes with trace amounts of copper and other minerals as well). This smooth, water-worn nugget is from Nevada. It weighs about 7.5 cts. Ex. Carl Davis Coll.

Electrum was used as early as the third millennium BC in Old Kingdom Egypt. In the Babylonian Talmud (+2nd cent.), asemon is a commonly used word referring to bullion (gold, silver of mixed). Leiden X papyrus (c. +3rd cent.) says: “no.8. It will be asem, (i.e. electrum, an alloy of gold and silver) which will deceive even the artisans (a tin-copper-gold-silver alloy); no. 1. Falsification of gold (a zinc-copper-lead-gold alloy)…” (cited in Needham, Joseph, 1985, SCC, Vol. 5, Pt. II, pp.18-21). Hopkins states: “The existence of this alloy (asse*m) may have been the original cause for the suggestion of transmutation since by adding silver to it, one would get a metal nearly identical with the crude silver from the mine; and by adding gold, something indistinguishable from gold. [The paucity of the Egyptian language may perhaps have been responsible for a confusion. Gold was ‘the yellow metal’, and the alloy produced was also a ‘yellow metal’.]” (Hopkins, AJ, 1967, Alchemy, pp. 103-104). Metals were not fully distinguished from their alloys; all carried names such as aes, electrum etc. Ayas meant metal. Asem denoted the natural alloy of silver and gold; it also meant any bright metal made with copper, tin, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. Twelve or thirteen different alloys were called asem… (Needham, Joseph, 1985, Science and Civilization in China, Vol. 5, pt. II, p.45).

ai̯os- (Pokorny entry), IE aisk- ‘ore, metal (copper, bronze, iron)’(Pokorny Master PIE etyma).

Egyptian Asem is Rigveda soma.

Gold was the flesh of the sun god, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology] by association it assured immortality. Ptah-Tatenen promised Ramses II happiness, wisdom, wealth and eternal power which was based on the strength of metals
“I have set thee as everlasting king, ruler established forever. I have wrought thy limbs of electrum, thy bones of copper, thy organs of iron.”
The blessing of Ptah, Ramses II
James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Three, § 403
Electrum was mostly imported from countries south of Egypt: Punt, Emu, the south countries :
Punt, 80,000 measures of myrrh, [6,000] … of electrum, 2,600 […] staves, [… …]
King Sahure, Palermo Stone
James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part One, § 161
Every [statue] is overlaid on its body with electrum of Emu
Thutmose III, inscription of the speos of Artemidos
James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Two, § 298
….. necklaces, amulets, and pendants of real electrum, brought to his majesty from the south countries as their yearly impost
Thutmose III
James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Two, § 654
Electrum was worked and used similarly to gold: chariots, thrones and offering-tables were wrought with it, ceilings, roofs, columns and pyramidions covered with it, amulets, statues and jewellery fashioned from it.

Valmiki’s description of how sun’s rays heat the icy water of Himalaya, results in an extraordinary metaphor – related to minerals — of “a great mountain of sorrow, with its deep gorge of brooding, its minerals of heaving sighs, thickets of desolation, numberless creatures of delirium, plants and rushes of misery, and peaks of grief, care and woe.”

sa tena tu praharSeNa dviguNii kR^ita vikramaH |
amR^ita aanayanaartham vai cakaara matimaan matim
|| 3-35-34

When his valour has become twice as much with that happiness that heedful Garuda indeed resolved to bring ambrosia from heaven. [3-35-34]

ayo jaalaani nirmathya bhittvaa ratna gR^iham varam |
mahendra bhavanaat guptam aajahaara amR^itam tataH
|| 3-35-35

Smashing the guard of iron-grid completely and crashing the unbreakable diamond -like strongroom in which the ambrosia is safeguarded, then Garuda carried off ambrosia from the palace of Indra. [3-35-35] (Valmiki Ramayana, araṇya kāṇḍa)
Location of Muztagh Ata of Kyrgystan close to Badakshan (source of lapis lazuli)

Prof. Georges Pinault identifies amśu of Rigveda with anzu of Tocharian. In Tocharian it means ‘iron’. Tocharian language as an Indo-European language has revealed a word anzu in Tocharian which meant ‘iron’. It is likely that this is the word used for soma in Rigveda.

If Tocharian was spoken in Mt. Mujavant (Muztagh Ata), the mleccha-speakers were dasyu, mleccha-vācas, who like ārya vācas were also dasyu. They brought soma impregnated within añcu ‘iron’ for Rigvedic people to process it. This añcu is metaphorically referred to by Valmiki in the context of suryāmśu and ayah-jālāni‘net of iron’ which was smashed by the falcon. Gayatri was the falcon who fetched soma. Tocharians, Tushara, were mleccha (meluhha) who spoke Tocharian, a satem branch of Indo-European. தூசர்¹ tūcar , n. < தூசு³. Troops; படைஞர். இந்திரன் முதலோர் தூசர் (குற்றா. தல. தக்கன் வேள்விச். 125).(Tamil)
Tusharas (alias Tukharas) were a Mlechcha tribe, with their kingdom located in the north west of India as per the epic Mahabharata. An account in Mahabharata (Mbh 1:85) depicts Mlechchas as the decendands of Anu, one of the cursed sons of king Yayati. Yayati’s eldest son Yadu, gave rise to the Yadavas and youngest son Puru to the Pauravas that includes the Kurus and Panchalas. Only the fifth son Puru’s line was considered to be the successors of Yayati’s throne, as he cursed the other four sons and denied them kingship. Pauravas inherited the Yayati’s original empire and stayed in the Gangatic plain who later created the Kuru and Panchala Kingdoms. They were the followers of proper Vedic culture. Yadavas made central and western India their stronghold. The descnedands of Anu, also called Anavas migrated to Iran, of which the Tusharas settled in Turkmenistan, Turkistan (in Afghanistan) and Turkey. The Tushara country mentioned in the epic could be Turkmenistan, a Central Asian Republic or the Turkistan of Afghanistan.

References in Mahabharata

Tushara kingdom is mentioned in the traves of Pandavas in the northern regions beyond the Himalayas:- Crossing the difficult Himalayan regions, and the countries of China, Tukhara, Darada and all the climes of Kulinda, rich in heaps of jewels, those warlike men reached the capital of Suvahu (3:176).

Valmiki Ramayana includes Janapadas of Andhras, Pundras, Cholas, Pandyas, Keralas, Mekhalas, Utkalas, Dasharnas, Abravantis, Avantis, Vidarbhas, Mlecchas, Pulindas, Surasenas, Prasthalas, Bharatas, Kurus, Madrakas, Kambojas, Daradas, Yavanas, Sakas (from Saka-dvipa), Rishikas, Tukharas, Chinas, Maha-Chinas, Kiratas, Barbaras, Tanganas, Niharas, Pasupalas etc (Ramayana 4.43).

Ramayana (I.54.17; I.55.2 seq), refeers to people called the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Kiratas, Haritas/Tukharas, Barbaras and Mlechchas who joined the army of sage Vasishtha during the battle of Kamdhenu against Aryan king Viswamitra of Kanauj.

Sabha Parava of Mahabharata enumerates numerous kings from the north-west paying gifts to Pandava king Yudhistra at the occasion of Rajasuya amongs whom it mentions the Kambojas, Vairamas, Paradas, Pulindas, Tungas, Kiratas, Pragjyotisha, Yavanas, Aushmikas, Nishadas, Romikas, Vrishnis, Harahunas, Chinas, Sakas, Sudras, Abhiras, Nipas, Valhikas, Tukharas, Kankas etc (Mahabharata 2.50.1.seqq).

In the context of Krsna digvijaya, the Mahabharata furnishes a key list of twenty-five ancient Janapadas viz: Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vatsa, Garga, Karusha, Pundra, Avanti, Dakshinatya, Parvartaka, Dasherka, Kashmira, Ursa, Pishacha, Mudgala, Kamboja, Vatadhana, Chola, Pandya, Trigarta, Malava, and Darada (MBH 7/11/15?17). Mahabharata (XIII, 33.20?23; XIII, 35, 17?18), lists the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Dravidas, Kalingas, Pulindas, Usinaras, Kolisarpas, Mekalas, Sudras, Mahishakas, Latas, Kiratas, Paundrakas, Daradas etc as the Vrishalas/degraded Kshatriyas.

Rajatarangini of Kalhana, lists northern nations for king Lalitaditya Muktapida’s (Kashmir) (8th c AD) dig-vijaya: the Kambojas, Tukharas, Bhauttas (in Baltistan in western Tibet), Daradas, Valukambudhi, Strirajya, Uttarakurus and Pragjyotisha respectively (Rajatarangini: 4.164, 4.175).

Kavyamimasa of Rajashekhar (880 – 920 AD) lists 21 north-western countries/nations of the Saka, Kekaya, Vokkana, Huna, Vanayuja, Kamboja, Vahlika, Vahvala, Lampaka, Kuluta, Kira, Tangana, Tushara, Turushaka, Barbara, Hara-hurava, Huhuka, Sahuda, Hamsamarga (Hunza), Ramatha and Karakantha. (See: Kavyamimasa, Rajashekhara, Chapter 17; also: Kavyamimasa Editor Kedarnath, trans.)

Apparently, Kamboja are the same as Gandhara.

MBH 12.207.43,44 names Yavanas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Kiratas and Barbaras (Yauna Kamboja Gandharah Kirata barbaraih) etc as Mlechcha.

Besides, there were Janapadas of Kurus and Panchalas.


Tusharas (alias Tukharas) were a Mlechcha tribe, with their kingdom located in the north west of India as per the epic Mahabharata. An account in Mahabharata (Mbh 1:85) depicts Mlechchas as the decendands of Anu, one of the cursed sons of king Yayati. Yayati’s eldest son Yadu, gave rise to the Yadavas and youngest son Puru to the Pauravas that includes the Kurus and Panchalas. Only the fifth son Puru’s line was considered to be the successors of Yayati’s throne, as he cursed the other four sons and denied them kingship. Pauravas inherited the Yayati’s original empire and stayed in the Gangatic plain who later created the Kuru and Panchala Kingdoms. They were the followers of proper Vedic culture. Yadavas made central and western India their stronghold. The descnedands of Anu, also called Anavas migrated to Iran, of which the Tusharas settled in Turkmenistan, Turkistan (in Afghanistan) and Turkey. The Tushara country mentioned in the epic could be Turkmenistan, a Central Asian Republic or the Turkistan of Afghanistan.

References in Mahabharata

Tushara kingdom is mentioned in the traves of Pandavas in the northern regions beyond the Himalayas:- Crossing the difficult Himalayan regions, and the countries of China, Tukhara, Darada and all the climes of Kulinda, rich in heaps of jewels, those warlike men reached the capital of Suvahu (3:176).

Valmiki Ramayana includes Janapadas of Andhras, Pundras, Cholas, Pandyas, Keralas, Mekhalas, Utkalas, Dasharnas, Abravantis, Avantis, Vidarbhas, Mlecchas, Pulindas, Surasenas, Prasthalas, Bharatas, Kurus, Madrakas, Kambojas, Daradas, Yavanas, Sakas (from Saka-dvipa), Rishikas, Tukharas, Chinas, Maha-Chinas, Kiratas, Barbaras, Tanganas, Niharas, Pasupalas etc (Ramayana 4.43).

Ramayana (I.54.17; I.55.2 seq), refeers to people called the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Kiratas, Haritas/Tukharas, Barbaras and Mlechchas who joined the army of sage Vasishtha during the battle of Kamdhenu against Aryan king Viswamitra of Kanauj.

Sabha Parava of Mahabharata enumerates numerous kings from the north-west paying gifts to Pandava king Yudhistra at the occasion of Rajasuya amongs whom it mentions the Kambojas, Vairamas, Paradas, Pulindas, Tungas, Kiratas, Pragjyotisha, Yavanas, Aushmikas, Nishadas, Romikas, Vrishnis, Harahunas, Chinas, Sakas, Sudras, Abhiras, Nipas, Valhikas, Tukharas, Kankas etc (Mahabharata 2.50.1.seqq).

In the context of Krsna digvijaya, the Mahabharata furnishes a key list of twenty-five ancient Janapadas viz: Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vatsa, Garga, Karusha, Pundra, Avanti, Dakshinatya, Parvartaka, Dasherka, Kashmira, Ursa, Pishacha, Mudgala, Kamboja, Vatadhana, Chola, Pandya, Trigarta, Malava, and Darada (MBH 7/11/15?17). Mahabharata (XIII, 33.20?23; XIII, 35, 17?18), lists the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Dravidas, Kalingas, Pulindas, Usinaras, Kolisarpas, Mekalas, Sudras, Mahishakas, Latas, Kiratas, Paundrakas, Daradas etc as the Vrishalas/degraded Kshatriyas.

Rajatarangini of Kalhana, lists northern nations for king Lalitaditya Muktapida’s (Kashmir) (8th c AD) dig-vijaya: the Kambojas, Tukharas, Bhauttas (in Baltistan in western Tibet), Daradas, Valukambudhi, Strirajya, Uttarakurus and Pragjyotisha respectively (Rajatarangini: 4.164, 4.175).

Kavyamimasa of Rajashekhar (880 – 920 AD) lists 21 north-western countries/nations of the Saka, Kekaya, Vokkana, Huna, Vanayuja, Kamboja, Vahlika, Vahvala, Lampaka, Kuluta, Kira, Tangana, Tushara, Turushaka, Barbara, Hara-hurava, Huhuka, Sahuda, Hamsamarga (Hunza), Ramatha and Karakantha. (See: Kavyamimasa, Rajashekhara, Chapter 17; also: Kavyamimasa Editor Kedarnath, trans.)

Apparently, Kamboja are the same as Gandhara.

MBH 12.207.43,44 names Yavanas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Kiratas and Barbaras (Yauna Kamboja Gandharah Kirata barbaraih) etc as Mlechcha.

Besides, there were Janapadas of Kurus and Panchalas.


Skambha Sukta ( Atharva Veda X.7 )

kásminn áṅge tápo asyā́dhi tiṣṭhati kásminn áṅga r̥tám asyā́dhy ā́hitam

kvà vratáṃ kvà śraddhā́sya tiṣṭhati kásminn áṅge satyám asya prátiṣṭhitam 1

 kásmād áṅgād dīpyate agnír asya kásmād áṅgāt pavate mātaríśva

kásmād áṅgād ví mimīté ‘dhi candrámā mahá skambhásya mímāno áṅgam 2

 kásminn áṅge tiṣṭhati bhū́mir asya kásminn áṅge tiṣṭhaty antárikṣam

kásminn áṅge tiṣṭhaty ā́hitā dyáuḥ kásminn áṅge tiṣṭhaty úttaraṃ diváḥ 3

 kvà prépsan dīpyata ūrdhvó agníḥ kvà prépsan pavate mātaríśvā

yátra prépsantīr abhiyánty āvŕ̥taḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 4

 kvā̀rdhamāsā́ḥ kvà yanti mā́sāḥ saṃvatsaréṇa sahá saṃvidānā́ḥ

yátra yánty r̥távo yátrārtavā́ḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 5

 kvà prépsantī yuvatī́ vírūpe ahorātré dravataḥ saṃvidāné

yátra prépsantīr abhiyánty ā́paḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 6

 yásmint stabdhvā́ prajā́patir lokā́nt sárvām̐ ádhārayat

skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 7

 yát paramám avamám yác ca madhyamáṃ prajā́patiḥ sasr̥jé viśvárūpam

kíyatā skambháḥ prá viveśa tátra yán ná prā́viśat kíyat tád babhūva 8

 kíyatā skambháḥ prá viveśa bhūtám kíyad bhaviṣyád anvā́śaye ‘sya

ékaṃ yád áṅgam ákr̥ṇot sahasradhā́ kíyatā skambháḥ prá viveśa tátra 9

 yátra lokā́mś ca kóśāṃś cā́po bráhma jánā vidúḥ

ásac ca yátra sác cāntá skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 10

 yátra tápaḥ parākrámya vratáṃ dhāráyaty úttaram

r̥táṃ ca yátra śraddhā́ cā́po bráhma samā́hitāḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 11

 yásmin bhū́mir antárikṣaṃ dyáur yásminn ádhy ā́hitā

yátrāgníś candrámāḥ sū́ryo vā́tas tiṣṭhanty ā́rpitāḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 12

 yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ áṅge sárve samā́hitāḥ

skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 13

 yátra ŕ̥ṣayaḥ prathamajā́ ŕ̥caḥ sā́ma yájur mahī́

ekarṣír yásminn ā́rpitaḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 14

 yátrāmŕ̥taṃ ca mr̥tyúś ca púruṣé ‘dhi samā́hite

samudró yásya nāḍyàḥ púruṣé ‘dhi samā́hitāḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 15

 yásya cátasraḥ pradíśo nāḍyàs tíṣṭhanti prathamā́ḥ

yajñó yátra párākrāntaḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 16

 yé púruṣe bráhma vidús té viduḥ parameṣṭhínam

yó véda parameṣṭhínaṃ yáś ca véda prajā́patim

jyeṣṭháṃ yé brā́hmaṇaṃ vidús te skambhám anusáṃviduḥ 17

 yásya śíro vaiśvānaráś cákṣur áṅgirasó ‘bhavan

áṅgāni yásya yātávaḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 18

 yásya bráhma múkham āhúr jihvā́ṃ madhukaśā́m utá

virā́jam ū́dho yásyāhúḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 19

 yásmād ŕ̥co apā́takṣan yájur yásmād apā́kaṣan

sā́māni yásya lómāny atharvāṅgiráso múkhaṃ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 20

 asaccākhā́ṃ pratíṣṭhantīṃ paramám iva jánā viduḥ

utó sán manyanté ‘vare yé te śā́khām upā́sate 21

 yátrādityā́ś ca rudrā́ś ca vásavaś ca samā́hítāḥ

bhūtáṃ ca yátra bhávyaṃ ca sárve lokā́ḥ prátiṣṭhitāḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 22

 yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ nidhíṃ rákṣanti sarvadā́

nidhíṃ tám adyá kó veda yáṃ devā abhirákṣatha 23

 yátra devā́ brahmavído bráhma jyeṣṭhám upā́sate

yó vái tā́n vidyā́t pratyákṣaṃ sá brahmā́ véditā syāt 24

 br̥hánto nā́ma té devā́ yé ‘sataḥ pári jajñiré

ékaṃ tád áṅgaṃ skambhásyā́sad āhuḥ paró jánāḥ 25

 yátra skambháḥ prajanáyan purāṇáṃ vyávartayat

ékaṃ tád áṅgaṃ skambhásya purāṇám anusáṃviduḥ 26

 yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ áṅge gā́trā vibhejiré

tā́n vái tráyastriṃśad devā́n éke brahamvído viduḥ 27

 hiraṇyagarbhám paramám anatyudyáṃ jánā viduḥ

skambhás tád ágre prā́siñcad dhíraṇyaṃ loké antarā́ 28

 skambhé lokā́ḥ skambhé tápaḥ skambhé ‘dhy r̥tám ā́hitam

skámbha tvā́ veda pratyákṣam índre sárvaṃ samā́hitam 29

 índre lokā́ índre tápa índre ‘dhy r̥tám ā́hitam

índraṃ tvā́ veda pratyákṣaṃ skambhé sárvaṃ prátiṣṭhitam 30

 nā́ma nā́mnā johavīti purā́ sū́ryāt puróṣásaḥ

yád ajáḥ prathamáṃ saṃbabhū́va sá ha tát svarā́jyam iyāya yásmān nā́nyát páram ásti bhūtám 31

 yásya bhū́miḥ pramā́ntárikṣam utódáram

dívaṃ yáś cakré mūrdhā́naṃ tásmai jyeṣṭhā́ya bráhmaṇe námaḥ 32

 yásya sū́ryaś cákṣuś candrámāś ca púnarṇavaḥ

agníṃ yáś cakrá āsyàṃ tásmai jyeṣṭhā́ya bráhmaṇe námaḥ 33

 yásya vā́taḥ prāṇāpānáu cákṣur áṅgirasó ‘bhavan

díśo yáś cakré prajñā́nīs tásmai jyeṣṭhā́ya bráhmaṇe námaḥ 34

 skambhó dādhāra dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ ubhé imé skambhó dādhārorv àntárikṣam

skambhó dādhāra pradíśaḥ ṣáḍ urvī́ḥ skambhá idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanam ā́ viveśa 35

 yáḥ śrámāt tápaso jātó lokā́nt sárvānt samānaśé

sómaṃ yáś cakré kévalaṃ tásmai jyeṣṭhā́ya bráhmaṇe námaḥ 36

 katháṃ vā́to nélayati katháṃ ná ramate mánaḥ

kím ā́paḥ satyáṃ prépsantīr nélayanti kadā́ caná 37

 mahád yakṣáṃ bhúvanasya mádhye tápasi krāntáṃ salilásya pr̥ṣṭhé

tásmin chrayante yá u ké ca devā́ vr̥kṣásya skándhaḥ paríta iva śā́khāḥ 38

 yásmai hástābhyāṃ pā́dābhyāṃ vācā́ śrótreṇa cákṣuṣā

yásmai devā́ḥ sádā balíṃ prayáchanti vímité ‘mitaṃ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ 39

 ápa tásya hatáṃ támo vyā́vr̥ttaḥ sá pāpmánā

sárvāṇi tásmin jyótīṃṣi yā́ni trī́ṇi prajā́patau 40

 yó vetasáṃ hiraṇyáyaṃ tiṣṭhantaṃ salilé véda

sá vái gúhyaḥ prajā́patiḥ 41

 tantrám éke yuvatī́ vírūpe abhyākrā́maṃ vayataḥ ṣáṇmayūkham prā́nyā́ tántūṃs tiráte dhatté anyā́ nā́pa vr̥ñjāte ná gamāto ántam 42

 táyor aháṃ parinŕ̥tyantyor iva ná ví jānāmi yatarā́ parástāt

púmān enad vayaty úd gr̥ṇanti púmān enad ví jabhārā́dhi nā́ke 43

 imé mayū́khā úpa tastabhur dívaṃ sā́māni cakrus tásarāṇi vā́tave 44

Skambha sukta (AV X.7) meaning:

1)Which of his members is the seat of Fervour: Which is the base of Ceremonial Order? Where in him standeth Faith? Where Holy Duty? Where, in what part of him is truth implanted?

2)Out of which member glows the light of Agni? Form which proceeds the breath of Mātarisvan? From which doth Chandra measure out his journey, travelling over Skambha’s mighty body?

3)Which of his members is the earth’s upholder? Which gives the middle air a base to rest on? Where, in which member is the sky established? Where hath the space above the sky its dwelling?

4)Whitherward yearning blazeth Agni upward? Whitherward yearning bloweth Mātarisvan? Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha to whom with longing go the turning pathways?

5)Whitheward go the half-months, and, accordant with the full year, the months in their procession? Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha to whom go seasons and the groups of seasons?

6)Whitherward yearning speed the two young Damsels, accordant, Day and Night, of different colour? Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha to whom the Waters take their way with longing?

7)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha, On whom Prajāpati set up and firmly stablished all the worlds?

8)That universe which Prajāpati created, wearing all forms,, the highest, midmost, lowest, How far did Skambha penetrate within it? What portion did he leave unpenetrated?

9)How far within the past hath Skambha entered? How much of him hath reached into the future? That one part which he set in thousand places,how far did Skambha penetrate within it?

10)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha in whom men recognize the Waters, Brahma, In whom they know the worlds and their enclosures, in whom are non-existence and existence?

11)Declare that. Skambha, who is he of many, In whom, exerting every power, Fervour maintains her loftiest vow; In whom are comprehended Law, Waters, Devotion and Belief

12)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha On whom as their foundation earth and firmament and sky are set; In whom as their appointed place rest Fire and Moon and Sun and Wind?
13)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha He in whose body are contained all three-and-thirty Deities?
14)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha. In whom the Sages earliest born, the Richas, Sāman, Yajus, Earth, and the one highest Sage abide?

15)Who out of many, tell me, is the Skambha. Who comprehendeth, for mankind, both immortality and death, He who containeth for mankind the gathered waters as his veins?

16)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha, He whose chief arteries stand there, the sky’s four regions, he whom Sacrifice putteth forth its might?

17)They who in Purusha understand Brahma know Him who is. Supreme. He who knows Him who is Supreme, and he who knows the Lord of Life, These know the loftiest Power Divine, and thence know Skam- bha thoroughly.

18)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha Of whom Vaisvānara became the head, the Angirases his eye, and Yātus his corporeal parts?

19)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha Whose mouth they say is Holy Lore, his tongue the Honey- sweetened Whip, his udder is Virāj, they say?

20)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha From whom they hewed the lichas off, from whom they chipped the Yajus, he Whose hairs are Sāma-verses and his mouth the Atharvāngi- rases?

21)Men count as ’twere a thing supreme nonentity’s conspicuous branch; And lower man who serve thy branch regard it as an entity.
22)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha In whom Ādityas dwell, in whom Rudras and Vasus are contained, In whom the future and the past and all the worlds are firmly set;

23)Whose secret treasure evermore the three-and thirty Gods protect? Who knoweth now the treasure which, O Deities ye watch and guard?

24)Where the Gods, versed in Sacred Lore, worship the loftiest Power Divine The priest who knows them face to face may be a sage who knows the truth.

25)Great, verily, are those Gods who sprang from non-existence into life. Further, men say that that one part of Skambha is nonentity.

26)Where Skambha generating gave the Ancient World its shape and form, They recognized that single part of Skambha as the Ancient World,

27)The three-and-thirty Gods within his body were disposed as limbs: Some, deeply versed in Holy Lore, some know those three-and- thirty Gods.

28)Men know Hiranyagarbha as supreme and inexpressible: In the beginning, in the midst of the world, Skambha poured that gold.

29)On Skambha Fervour rests, the worlds and Holy Law repose on him. Skambha, I clearly know that all of thee on Indra is imposed.

30)On Indra Fervour rests, on him the worlds and Holy Law recline. Indra, I clearly know that all of thee on Skambha findeth rest.

31)Ere sun and dawn man calls and calls one Deity by the other’s name. When the Unborn first sprang into existence he reached that independent sovran lordship; than which aught higher never hath arisen.

32)Be reverence paid to him, that highest Brahma, whose base is Earth, his belly Air, who made the sky to be his head.

33)Homage to highest Brahma, him whose eye is Sūrya and the Moon who groweth young and new again, him who made Agni for his mouth.

34)Homage to highest Brahma, him whose two life-breathings were the Wind, The Angirases his sight: who made the regions be his means of sense.

35)Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air between them. Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded.
36)Homage to highest Brahma, him who, sprung from Fervour and from toil, Filled all the worlds completely, who made Soma for himself alone.

37)Why doth the Wind move ceaselessly? Why doth the spirit take no rest? Why do the Waters, seeking truth, never at any time repose?

38)Absorbed in Fervour, is the mighty Being, in the world’s centre, on the waters’ surface. To him the Deities, one and all betake them. So stand the tree- trunk with the branches round it.

39)Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha. To whom the Deities with hands, with feet, and voice, and ear, and eye. Present unmeasured tribute in the measured hall of sacrifice?

40)Darkness is chased away from him: he is exempt from all distress. In him are all the lights, the three abiding in Prajāpati.

41)He verily who knows the Reed of Gold that stands amid the flood, is the mysterious Lord of Life.
42)Singly the two young Maids of different colours approach the six-pegged warp in turns and weave it. The one draws out the threads, the other lays them: they break them not, they reach no end of labour.

43)Of these two, dancing round as ’twere, I cannot distinguish whether ranks before the other. A Male  weaves this web, a Male divides it: a Male hath stretched it to the cope of heaven

44)These pegs have buttressed up the sky. The Sāmans have turned them into shuttles for the weaving.

Skambha Sukta (Atharva Veda X.8)

yó bhūtáṃ ca bhávyaṃ ca sárvaṃ yáś cādhitíṣṭhati

sv àryásya ca kévalaṃ tásmai jyeṣṭhā́ya bráhmaṇe námaḥ 1

Worship to loftiest Brahma, Lord of what hath been and what shall be, To him who rules the universe, and heavenly light is all his own!

skambhénemé víṣṭabhite dyáuś ca bhū́miś ca tiṣṭhataḥ

skambhá idáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇán nimiṣác ca yát 2

Upheld by Skambha’s power these two, the heaven and the earth, stand fast. Skambha is all this world of life, whatever breathes or shuts eye.

tisró ha prajā́ atyāyám āyan ny ànyā́ arkám abhíto ‘viśanta

br̥hán ha tasthau rájaso vimā́no hárito háriṇīr ā́ viveśa 3

Three generations have gone by and vanished and others near have entered into sunlight. There stood on high he who metes out the region into green, plants hath passed the Golden-coloured

dvā́daśa pradháyaś cakrám ékaṃ trī́ṇi nábhyāni ká u tác ciketa

tátrā́hatās trī́ṇi śatā́ni śaṅkávaḥ ṣaṣṭíś ca khī́lā ávicācalā yé 4

One is the wheel, the tires are twelve in number, the naves are three What man hath understood it?Three hundred spokes have thereupon been hammered, and sixty pins set firmly in their places.

idáṃ savitar ví jānīhi ṣáḍ yamā́ éka ekajáḥ

tásmin hāpitvám ichante yá eṣām éka ekajáḥ 5

Discern thou this, O Savitar. Six are the twins, one singly born.They claim relationship in that among them which is born alone.

āvíḥ sán níhitaṃ gúhā járan nā́ma mahát padám

tátredáṃ sárvam ā́rpitam éjat prāṇát prátiṣṭhitam 6

Though manifest, it lies concealed in the vast place they call the old:Therein is firmly stationed all the moving, breathing universe.

ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā

ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva 7

Up, eastward downward in the west, ‘it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied.With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?

pañcavāhī́ vahatyágram eṣāṃ práṣṭayo yuktā́ anusáṃvahanti

áyātam asya dadr̥śé ná yātáṃ páraṃ nédīyó ‘varaṃ dávīyaḥ 8

In front of these the five-horsed car moves onward: side-horses, harnessed with the others draw it. No one hath seen its hither course untravelled; the height sees it more near, the depth more distant.

tiryágbilaś camasá ūrdhvábudhnas tásmin yáśo níhitaṃ viśvárūpam

tád āsata ŕ̥ṣayaḥ saptá sākáṃ yé asyá gopā́ maható babhūvúḥ 9

The bowl with mouth inclined and bottom upward holds stored within it every form of glory.Thereon together sit the Seven Rishis who have become thismighty One’s protectors

yā́ purástād yujyáte yā́ ca paścā́d yā́ viśváto yujyáte yā́ ca sarvátaḥ

yáyā yajñáḥ prā́ṅ tāyáte tā́ṃ tvā pr̥chāmi katamā́ sā́ r̥cā́m 10

The Verse employed at opening and conclusion, the Verseemployed in each and every portion;That by which sacrifice proceedeth onward. I ask thee which is that of all the Verses

yád éjati pátati yác ca tíṣṭhati prāṇád áprāṇan nimiṣác ca yád bhúvat

tád dādhāra pr̥thivī́ṃ viśvárūpaṃ tát saṃbhū́ya bhavaty ékam evá 11

That which hath power of motion, that which flies, or stands,which breathes or breathes not, which, existing, shuts the eyeWearing all forms that entity upholds the earth, and in its closeconsistence still is only one.


anantáṃ vítataṃ purutrā́nantám ántavac cā sámante

té nākapāláś carati vicinván vidvā́n bhūtám utá bhávyam asya 12

The infinite to every side extended, the finite and the infinite around us,These twain Heaven’s Lord divides as he advances, knowing the past hereof and all the future

prajā́patiś carati gárbhe antár ádr̥śyamāno bahudhā́ ví jāyate

ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ katamáḥ sá ketúḥ 13

Within the womb Prajapati is moving: he, though unseen, is born in sundry places. He with one half engendered all creation. What sign is there to tell us of the other?

ūrdhváṃ bhárantam udakáṃ kumbhénevodahāryàm

páśyanti sárve cákṣuṣā ná sárve mánasā viduḥ 14

All men behold him with the eye, but with the mind they know not him.Holding aloft the water as a water-bearer in her jar.

dūré pūrṇéna vasati dūrá ūnéna hīyate

mahád yakṣáṃ bhúvanasya mádhye tásmai balíṃ rāṣṭrabhŕ̥to bharanti 15

With the full vase he dwells afar, is left far off what time it fails, A mighty Being in creation’s centre: to him the rulers of the realms bring tribute.

yátaḥ sū́ryaḥ udéty ástaṃ yátra ca gáchati

tád evá manye ‘háṃ jyeṣṭháṃ tád u nā́ty eti kíṃ caná 16

That, whence the Sun arises, that whither he goes to take his rest,That verily I hold supreme: naught in the world surpasses it.

yé arvā́ṅ mádhya utá vā purāṇáṃ védaṃ vidvā́ṃsam abhíto vádanti

ādityám evá té pári vadanti sárve agníṃ dvitī́yaṃ trivŕ̥taṃ ca haṃsám 17

Those who in recent times, midmost, or ancient, on all sides.greet the sage who knows the Veda,One and all, verily discuss Aditya, the second Agni, and the threefold Hansa.

sahasrāhṇyáṃ víyatāv asya pakṣáu hárer haṃsásya pátataḥ svargám

sá devā́nt sárvān úrasy upadádya saṃpáśyan yāti bhúvanāni víśvā 18

This gold-hued Haiisa’s wings, flying to heaven, spread o’er athousand days’ continued journey.Supporting all the Gods upon his bosom, he goes his way beholding every creature.

satyénordhvás tapati bráhmaṇārvā́ṅ ví paśyati

prāṇéna tiryáṅ prā́ṇati yásmin jyeṣṭhám ádhi śritám 19

By truth he blazes up aloft by Brahma, he looks down below: He breathes obliquely with his breath, he on whom what is highest rests.

yó vái té vidyā́d aráṇī yā́bhyāṃ nirmathyáte vásu

sá vidvā́n jyeṣṭháṃ manyeta sá vidyād brā́hmaṇaṃ mahát 20

The sage who knows the kindling-sticks whence by attrition wealth is drawn,Will comprehend what is most high, will know the mighty Brahmana.

apā́d ágre sám abhavat só ágre svàr ā́bharat

cátuṣpād bhūtvā́ bhógyaḥ sárvam ā́datta bhójanam 21

Footless at first was he produced, footless he brought celestiallight. Four-footed grown, and meet for use, he seized each thing enjoyable.

bhógyo bhavad átho ánnam adad bahú 

yó devám uttarā́vantam upā́sātai sanātánam 22

Useful will he become, and then will he consume great store of food The man who humbly worshippeth the eternal and victorious God.

sanātánam enam āhur utā́dyá syāt púnarṇavaḥ

ahorātré prá jāyete anyó anyásya rūpáyoḥ 23

Him too they call eternal; he may become new again to-day.Day and Night reproduce themselves, each from the form the other wears.

śatáṃ sahásram ayútaṃ nyàrbudam asaṃkhyeyáṃ svám asmin níviṣṭam 

tád asya ghnanty abhipáśyata evá tásmād devó rocat eṣá etát 24

A hundred, thousand, myriad, yea a hundred million stores of wealth that passes count are laid in him.This wealth they kill as he looks on, and now this God shines bright therefrom.

bā́lād ékam aṇīyaskám utáikaṃ néva dr̥śyate

tátaḥ páriṣvajīyasī devátā sā́ máma priyā́ 25

One is yet finer than a hair, one is not even visible. And hence the Deity who grasps with firmer hold is dear to me.

iyáṃ kalyāṇy àjárā mártyasyāmŕ̥tā gr̥hé 

yásmai kr̥tā́ śáye sá yáś cakā́ra jajā́ra sáḥ 26

This fair one is untouched by age, immortal in a mortal’s house. He for whom she was made lies low, and he who formed her hath grown old.

tváṃ strī́ tváṃ púmān asi tváṃ kumārá utá vā kumārī́

tváṃ jīrṇó daṇḍéna vañcasi tváṃ jātó bhavasi viśvátomukhaḥ 27

Thou art a woman, and a man; thou art a damsel and a boy. Grown old thou totterest with a staff, new-born thou lookest every way.

utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ 

éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ 28

Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.

pūrṇā́t pūrṇám úd acati pūrṇáṃ pūrṇéna sicyate

utó tád adyá vidyāma yátas tát pariṣicyáte 29

Forth from the full he lifts the full, the full he sprinkles withthe full.Now also may we know the source from which the stream is sprinkled round.

eṣā́ sanátnī sánam evá jātáiṣā́ purāṇī́ pári sárvaṃ babhūva

mahī́ devy ùṣáso vibhātī́ sáikenaikena miṣatā́ ví caṣṭe 30

Brought forth in olden time, the everlasting, high over all that is was she, the Ancient. The mighty Goddess of the Morn, refulgent with one eye, looketh round with one that winketh,


ávir vái nā́ma devátarténāste párīvr̥tā 

tásyā rūpéṇemé vr̥kṣā́ háritā háritasrajaḥ 31

Known by the name of Guardian Grace the Deity sits girt by Right.The trees have taken from her hue, green-garlanded, their robe of green.


ánti sántaṃ ná jahāty ánti sántaṃ ná paśyati

devásya paśya kā́vyaṃ ná mamāra ná jīryati 32

When he is near she leaves him not, she sees him not though he is near. Behold the wisdom of the God; he hath not died, he grows not old.

apūrvéṇeṣitā́ vā́cas tā́ vadanti yathāyathám

vádantīr yátra gáchanti tád āhur brā́hmaṇaṃ mahát 33

Voices that never were before emitted speak as fitteth them. Whither they go and speak, they say there is the mighty Brahmana.

yátra devā́ś ca manuṣyā̀ś cārā́ nā́bhāv iva śritā́ḥ

apā́ṃ tvā púṣpaṃ pr̥chāmi yátra tán māyáyā hitám 34

I ask thee where the waters’ flower by wondrous magic art was placed,Thereon the Gods and men are set as spokes are fastened in the nave.

yébhir vā́ta iṣitáḥ pravā́ti yé dádante páñca díśaḥ sadhrī́cīḥ

yá ā́hutim atyámanyanta devā́ apā́ṃ netā́raḥ katamé tá āsan 35

Who gave command unto the wind that blowet! Who ranged the five united heavenly regions? Who were the Gods who cared not for oblations! Which of them brought the sacrificial waters?

imā́m eṣāṃ pr̥thivī́ṃ vásta éko ‘ntárikṣaṃ páry éko babhūva

dívam eṣāṃ dadate yó vidhartā́ víśvā ā́śāḥ práti rakṣanty éke 36

One God inhabiteth the earth we live on; another hath encompassed air’s mid-region. One, the Supporter, takes the heaven and bears it: some keeping watch guard all the quarters safely.

yó vidyā́t sū́traṃ vítataṃ yásminn ótāḥ prajā́ imā́ḥ

sū́traṃ sū́trasya yó vidyā́d sá vidyād brā́hmaṇaṃ mahát 37

The man who knows the drawn-out string on which these creatures all are strung,The man who knows the thread’s thread, he may know the mighty Brahmana.

védāháṃ sū́traṃ vítataṃ yásminn ótāḥ prajā́ imā́ḥ

sū́traṃ sū́trasyāháṃ vedā́tho yád brā́hmaṇaṃ mahád 38

I know the drawn-out string, the thread whereon these creatures all are strung. I know the thread’s thread also, thus I know the mighty Brahmana.

yád antarā́ dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ agnír áit pradáhan viśvadāvyàḥ

yátrā́tiṣṭhann ékapatnīḥ parástāt kvèvāsīn mātaríśvā tadā́nīm 39

When Agni passed between the earth and heaven devouring with his flame the all-consumer,Where dwelt afar the spouses of one husband, where at that moment, where was Matarisvan?

apsv ā̀sīn mātaríśvā práviṣṭaḥ práviṣṭā devā́ḥ salilā́ny āsan

br̥hán ha tasthau rájaso vimā́naḥ pávamāno haríta ā́ viveśa 40

Into the floods had Matarisvan entered, the deities had past into the waters. There stood the mighty measurer of the region: into the verdant plants went Pavamana.

úttareṇeva gayatrī́m amŕ̥té ‘dhi ví cakrame

sā́mnā yé sā́ma saṃvidúr ajás tád dadr̥śe kvà 41

Over the Gayatri, above the immortal world he strode away.Those who by Song discovered Song–where did the Unborn see that thing?

nivéśanaḥ saṃgámano vásūnāṃ devá iva savitā́ satyádharmā 

índro ná tasthau samaré dhánānām 42

Luller to rest, and gatherer-up of treasures, Savitar like a God whose laws are constant, hath stood like Indra in the war for riches.

puṇḍárīkaṃ návadvāraṃ tribhír guṇébhir ā́vr̥tam 

tásmin yád yakṣám ātmanvát tád vái brahmavído viduḥ 43

Men versed in sacred knowledge know that living Being that abides. In the nine-portalled Lotus Flower, enclosed with triple bands and bonds.

akāmó dhī́ro amŕ̥taḥ svayaṃbhū́ rásena tr̥ptó ná kútaś canónaḥ

tám evá vidvā́n ná bibhāya mr̥tyór ātmā́naṃ dhī́ram ajáraṃ yúvānam 44

Desireless, firm, immortal, self-existent, contented with the essence, lacking nothing, Free from the fear of Death is he who knoweth that Soul courageous, youthful, undecaying.

To summarize, the submission is that Soma was a contribution by Vedic people to the Bronze Age Revolution. The importance of the contribution is recognized by the expression सोम–संस्था [p= 1250,3] f. the basis or initial form of a सोम sacrifice MBh. Gaut. Ma1rkP. सं-स्था a complete liturgical course , the basis or essential form of a sacrifice (the ज्योतिः-ष्टोम , हविर्-यज्ञ , andपाक-यज्ञ consist of seven such forms) S3rS.

Section 2. archaeological evidence of Binjor अष्टाश्रि यूप in yajñakuṇḍa, 2500 BCE

The importance is reinforced by the spectacular discovery of a yajñakunda in Binjor archaeological site together with an Indus Script Seal and a proclamation skambha.

अष्टाश्रि ‘having eight corners’ (Vedic) yupa in Indus Script tradition signifies medha,अहीन सत्त्र soma yajña validated by19 yupa inscriptions
The Binjor agnikunda evidences the performance of a Vajapeya yajña.

Identification of Soma as metal is consistent with the context of Indus Script Corpora as metalwork catalogues of the Bronze Age Revolution.

Vedic River Sarasvati, अहम् राष्ट्री संगमनी वसूनाम् I am the move of nation’s wealth: देवता आत्मा, ऋषिका वाक् आम्भृणी  (RV 10.125)

Bharata sampradāya (tradition) celebrates Kumbhamela every 12 years venerating the confluence at Prayag, of Rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati.

There is NO myth in this because it is closest to the absoute truth expressed in words. Ganga is real. Yamuna is real. Why should Sarasvati alone be mythyā? The Vedic river, the great mother, ambitamey, the great river, naditamey, the great divinity, devitamey adored in 72 rica-s of Rigveda nourished a civilization on her banks. She is vāgdevi, divinity of speech, arts, knowledge, wisdom.

Out of 2600 sites of the civiization, over 80% (2000+) are on the Sarasvati river basin. Most of the sites are part of a maritime civilization with seafaring merchants reaching into Eurasia across the Persian Gulf and Tigris-Euphrates doab engaging in trade transactions catalyzed by the Bronze Age Revolution of Tin-Bronzes and cire perdue artefacts of exquisite beauty and elegance exemplified by the Lamp lady and the Dancing Girl bronze statues. Both hold lamps in their hands.

tagara ‘tabernae montana’ rebus: tagara ‘tin’ kolom ‘three’ rebus: kolimi ‘smithy, forge’

Scientists and scholars have found the river and also found the identity, language, speech and writing of the people who were nurtured by the mother on her banks. The people of the Vedic tradition have left behind over 7000 inscriptions proclaiming the contributions made by the people of the civilization to the Bronze Age Revolution. The continuum of the Vedic culture is evidenced archaeologically by the proclamation of an octagonal pillarअष्टाश्रि यूप in a यज्ञ कुण्ड

at Binjor (4MSR) on the banks of River Sarasvati (near Anupgarh, 7 kms. from Pakistan border). At this site, the river bifurcates, with one channel flowing west to Ganweriwala (Bahawalpur province) and another to Jaisalmer-Rann of Kutch. History is all around and we only have to realize it. This message should resonate in every classroom, in every home.

The profundity of the metaphor of देवता आत्मा, ऋषिका वाक् आम्भृणी  (RV 10.125) is the आध्यात्मिका metaphor proclaiming the inexorable sacred sound of the praṇava, Om ॐ अनाहत नाद ब्रह्मन् This metaphor of divine guidance should lead us to abhyudayamअभ्युदयम् ‘welfare’ and निःश्रेयस्  ‘bliss’, uniting everyआत्मन् with the परमात्मन् protecting धर्म dharma-dhamma; esha dhammo sanantano, एष धम्मो सनन्तणो said the Buddha Gautama.

अष्टाश्रि यूप in a यज्ञ कुण्ड Binjor (4MSR archaeological site), octagonal pillar in a fire-altar Binjor agnikunda for a Soma yajña with octagonal, अष्टाश्रि yūpa. Read in the context of the Vedic tradition of Vajapeya as a सोमः [सू-मन् Uṇ.1.139]-संस्था a form of the Soma-sacrifice, the Binjor agnikunda evidences the performance of a Vajapeya yajña or a बहुसुवर्णकम् सोमः [सू-मन् Uṇ.1.139]-संस्था

discovered by students of Inst. of Archaeology, Delhi in April 2015

Introduction RV 10.125

Aham rudrebhir vasubhis charamyaham adityair uta visvadevaih
Aham mitra varunobha bibharmyaham indragnee aham asvinobha. [1]

I move with the Rudras and also with the Vasus, I wander with the Adityas and the Vishwadevas. I hold aloft both Mitra and Varuna, and also Indra and Agni and the twin Ashvins.

Aham somam ahanasam bibharmi aham tvashtaram uta pushanam bhagam
Aham dadhami dravinam havishmate supravye yajamanaya sunvate. [2]

I uphold Soma the exuberant; I uphold Tvasta, Pushan, and Bhaga. I endow with wealth the offerer of oblation, the worshipper and the pious presser of the Soma.

Aham rashtri sangamani vasunam chikitushee prathama yajniyanam
Tam ma deva vyadadhuh puritra bhuristhatram bhooryavesayantim. [3]

I am the ruling Queen, the amasser of treasures, full of wisdom, first of those who are worthy of worship. That me the Gods have installed in many places, with many homes to enter and abide in.

Maya so annamatti yo vipasyati yah praniti ya i srnotyuktam
Amantavo mam ta upa kshiyanti srudhi sruta sraddhivam te vadami. [4]

Through me alone all eat the food that helps them see, breathe and hear the spoken word. He is not aware of me, yet he dwells in me alone. Listen, you who know! For, the words I speak to you deserve your trust.

Ahameva svayam idam vadami jushtam devebhir uta manushebhih
Yam kamaye tam tam ugram krnomi tam brahmanam tam rshim tam sumedham [5]

It is I who announces the tidings that the gods and men alike rejoice to hear. The man I love, I make mighty in strength. I make him a priest, a sage, or a learned scholar, as I please.

Aham rudraya dhanura tanomi brahmadvishe sarave hantava u
Aham janaya samadam krnomi aham dyava prthivee a vivesa. [6]

I bend the bow for Rudra that his arrow may slay the hater of the words of sacred wisdom. I rouse the people, and make them strive. I have entered the Earth and Heaven, filling everything.

Aham suve pitaram asya murdhan mama yonir apsu antah samudre
Tato vi tishthe bhuvananu visvotamum dyam varshmanopa sprsami [7]

I give birth to the creator in the heavens atop the world and my own origin is deep in the ocean, in the cosmic waters. From there I permeate all existing worlds, and even touch yonder heavens with my forehead.

Ahameva vata iva pra vami arabhamana bhuvanani vishva
Paro diva para ena prthivi etavati mahina sam babhuva [8]

It is my breath that blows as the mighty wind, while I hold together all the worlds.
Beyond the heavens and above the earth I tower, such am I in my might and splendour.

Binjor yupa inscription on Indus Script seal is यष्ट्वा बहुसुवर्णकम् सोमः-संस्था 

Binjor yupa inscription on Indus Script seal is यष्ट्वा बहुसुवर्णकम् like Mulavarman’s yupa which commemorates performance of a soma yajña
The yupa found in Binjor yajña kunda may also be compared with the yupa of Mulavarman which commemorates the perforamnce of a soma yajña, a सोमः-संस्था

Mulavarman’s yupa inscription described the soma yaga as बहुसुवर्णक, bahusuvarṇaka, the same metaphorical expression used in the epic Valmiki Ramayana, to ignify creation and distribution of wealth.

Was it बहुसुवर्णकम् that was performed in Binjor? Maybe, if the decipherment of the Indus Script seal found in Binjor is deemed to be a yupa inscription associated with the octagonal yupa found in the yajña kunda.

Binjor Seal inscription, on performing a soma yajña, given the signature stake of an octagonal brick which is अष्टाश्रि ‘having eight corners’ (Vedic) yupa conveys a message similar to Mulavarman’s yupa inscription message  यष्ट्वा बहुसुवर्णकम्  performing a soma yajña : ‘mint, metallic iron alloy implements, (of) hard alloy workshop’ for shipment on dhow seafaring vessel koTiya from fortification. The metalwork catalogue signified by the Binjor seal is indeed बहुसुवर्णकम् bestowing wealth to the artisans of Binjor.

The expression यष्ट्वा बहुसुवर्णकम्  in Mulavarman’s first yupa inscription refers to a soma yajña. yaṣṭṛ यष्टृ m. [यज्-तृच्] is ‘a worshipper, sacrificer.’ The yupa is erected by Mulavarman to commemorate the performance of the soma yajña called बहुसुवर्णकम्

Section 3. metonymy — hypertexts in Harappa Script of Bronze Age

Binjor seal

A seal made of steatite stone found in one of the trenches in 4MSR. It is a sure sign that the site belongs to the Mature Harappan phase. The seal has the carving of a unicorn standing in front of an incense burner and a hypertext inscription with five Indus Script hieroglyphs on the top part. Photo:S. Subramanium

Binjor (4MSR) seal.

Binjor Seal Text.

Fish + scales, aya ã̄s (amśu) ‘metallic stalks of stone ore’. Vikalpa: badhoṛ ‘a species of fish with many bones’ (Santali) Rebus: baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali)  The accent is on the fin of fish: khambhaṛā ‘fish-fin’ rebus:kammaTa ‘mint, coiner, coinage’
gaNDa ‘four’ Rebus: khaNDa ‘metal implements’ Together with cognate ancu ‘iron’ the message is: native metal implements.

Thus, the hieroglyph multiplex reads: kammaTa aya ancu khaNDa ‘mint, metallic iron alloy implements’.

koḍi ‘flag’ (Ta.)(DEDR 2049). Rebus 1: koḍ ‘workshop’ (Kuwi) Rebus 2: khŏḍ m. ‘pit’, khö̆ḍü f. ‘small pit’ (Kashmiri. CDIAL 3947)

– ढालकाठी [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard rebus: –

ढाल [ ḍhāla ]’dhalako ‘a large metal ingot (Gujarati) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati).
The bird hieroglyph: karaḍa

करण्ड  m. a sort of duck L. కారండవము (p. 0274) [ kāraṇḍavamu ] kāraṇḍavamu. [Skt.] n. A sort of duck. (Telugu) karaṭa1 m. ʻ crow ʼ BhP., °aka — m. lex. [Cf. karaṭu — , karkaṭu — m. ʻ Numidian crane ʼ, karēṭu — , °ēṭavya — , °ēḍuka — m. lex., karaṇḍa2 — m. ʻ duck ʼ lex: see kāraṇḍava — ]Pk. karaḍa — m. ʻ crow ʼ, °ḍā — f. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ; S. karaṛa — ḍhī˜gu m. ʻ a very large aquatic bird ʼ; L. karṛā m., °ṛī f. ʻ the common teal ʼ.(CDIAL 2787) Rebus: karaḍā ‘hard alloy’

Thus, the text of Indus Script inscription on the Binjor Seal reads: ‘mint, metallic iron alloy implements, hard alloy workshop’ PLUS

the hieroglyphs of one-horned young bull PLUS standard device in front read rebus:

kõda ‘young bull, bull-calf’ rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary’; kundār ‘turner’. కోడియ (p. 326) kōḍiya Same as కోడె.  కోడె (p. 326) kōḍe kōḍe. [Tel.] n. A bullcalf. కోడెదూడ. A young bull. కాడిమరపదగినదూడ. Plumpness, prime. తరుణము. జోడుకోడయలు a pair of bullocks. కోడె adj. Young. కోడెత్రాచు a young snake, one in its prime. “కోడెనాగముం బలుగుల రేడుతన్ని కొని పోవుతెరంగు” రామా. vi. కోడెకాడు kōḍe-kāḍu. n. A young man. పడుచువాడు. A lover విటుడు. Rebus: kōṭiya ‘dhow seafaring vessel’.

Hieroglyph: sãghāṛɔ ‘lathe’.(Gujarati) Rebus: sangara ‘proclamation.

Together, the message of the Binjor Seal with inscribed text is a proclamation, a metalwork catalogue (of)  ‘metallic iron alloy implements, hard alloy workshop’
यष्टिः yaṣṭiḥ ष्टी ṣṭī f. [यज्-क्तिन् नि˚ न संप्रसारणम्] 1 A stick, staff.  यष्टि 1 [p=840,3] f. (for 2. » [p= 848,3]) sacrificing Pa1n2. 3-3,10 Sch. (prob. w.r. for इष्टि). n. (only L. ) or f. (also यष्टी cf. g. बह्व्-ादि ; prob. fr. √ यछ् = यम् ; for 1. यष्टि » [p= 840,3]) ” any support ” , a staff , stick , wand , rod , mace , club , cudgel pole , pillar , perch S3Br. &ca flag-staff (» ध्वज-य्°) a stalk , stem , branch , twig Hariv. Ka1v.

Four of seven yupa inscriptions of Mulavarman (Title: Maharaja Kundunga Anumerta Dewawarman, kingdom of Kutai Martadipura) in Samskrtam have been translated.

Three yupa inscriptions are not legible.

Mulawarman Yupa inscriptions

“The first yupa inscription of Mulavarman was erected to commemorate a bahu-suvarnaka sacrifice,’that on which gold is spent in profusion’. If the inscription can be taken literally, it points up the value of gold in the Southeast Aian world fo the fifth century. Another records that Mulavarman ‘had given a gift (dAnam) of a thousand kine and a score the twice-born (i.e. the brAhmaNas)….(consequently) for that deed of merit (puNyasya) thi sacrificial post (yupo) has been made…A third inscription is similar: ‘Let the foremost amongst the priests and whatsoever other pious men (there be) hear of the meritorious deed (puNyam) of Mulavarman the king of illustrious and resplendent fame – (let them hear) of his great gift (bahudAna), his gift of cattle (?)(jivadAna), his gift of a wonder-tree (kalpavRkSam), hs gift of land (bhUmidAna). For these multitudes of pious deeds (puNyaganam) this sacrificial post has been set up by the priests.’ It is the duty of men of prowess to give liberally of their substance so as to acquire greater wealth and status, thereby initiating an endless cycle of giving at all levels of society. It is also imperative that these meritorious deeds be properly recorded. In the second and third inscriptions, there is an expressed linkage between the giving of gifts (dAna) and the acquisition of merit (puNya). To record these pious acts a sacrificial post (yupa) was erected. What we have, then, is action on the temporal plane that was meant to have eternal impact in the sense that Mulavarman was building his field of merit.” (Robert S. Wicks, 1992, Money, markets and trade in early Southeast Asia: the development of indigenous monetary systems to AD 1400, SEAP Publications, Cornell, Ithaca, NY, p.245; loc. Cit. Mulavarman’s First Yupa Inscription; FH van Naerssen, and RC longh, The economic and administrative history of early Indonesia, Leiden: Brill, 1977), p. 20; J. Ph. Vogel, ‘The Yupa inscription of Mulavarman from Koelei (East Borneo)’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde 79, 1918: 213; Mulavarman’s Second Yupa Inscription, Vogel, ‘Yupa Inscriptions’, p. 214; Mulavarman’s Third Yupa Inscription; Vogel, ‘Yupa Inscriptions’, p. 215.)

Kutai Kingdom was the oldest Hindu Kingdom in Indonesia placed in Muara Karman, East Borneo. This inscription formed Yupa, a stone pillar that is used to bind the victim in the form of animals or humans to be sacrificed to the gods. There are seven Yupa which contains the inscription, but only 4 were successfully read and translated. This inscription use Pallawa Pre-Nagari letters and in Sanskrit, which is estimated from the shape and type dating from around 400 AD.

… Contents of Mulawarman Inscription

Fill Yupa first inscription mentions that the first king of the kingdom of Kutai is Kudungga. Kudungga which is the original name of Indonesia at that time showed that he was not the founder of the royal family. Additionally, Yupa mention also that during the reign of Asmawarman in Kutai Kingdom Aswamedha ceremony held. This ceremony is a ceremony of release of the horse to determine the boundaries of the empire Kutai.

Mulwarman Inscription I

The Maharaja Kundunga, very noble, has a son of the renowned, namely the Aswawarman, which like the Amshuman (sun god) grow very noble family. The Aswawarman have three sons, such as fire (holy) three. Leading off the third son is the Mulawarman, civilized king good, strong and powerful. The Mulawarman has held receptions (salvation called) gold very much. Create a memorial feast (salvation) that stone monument was established by the brahmins.

A Yupa with inscription in the National Museum of Indonesia in Jakarta

The key expressions on the Mulavarman Yupa inscription (D.175) are in Samskritam and one fragment reads: yaṣṭvā bahusuvarṇakam; tasya yajñasya yūpo ‘yam. This means “from yaṣṭi to possess many gold pieces; this Yupa is a commemoration of that yajña.” The interpretation is comparable to the Indus Script seal found in Binjor in the context of a fire-altar with an octagonal brick, yaṣṭi. The seal can be seen as an inscription detailing metalwork catalogue of the bahusuvarṇnakam ‘to possess many gold pieces’ that was produced by the smelter/furnace operations using the fire-altar.

Prof. Kern identified the expression with bahuhiraNya, a particular Soma yajña. Balakanda of Ramayana has this citation: nityam pramuditAh sarve yatha kRitayuge tathA as’vamedha s’atair ishTvA tathA bahusuvarNakaih (Balakanda I,95) The referene is to the as’vamedha sattra desirous of possessing many pieces of gold. In reference to Meghanada’s yajña, the reference reads:

agniSTomo ‘s’vamedha ca yajno bahusuvarNakah

rAjasUyas tathA yajno gomedho vaishNavas tathA mahes’vare

(UttrakANDa, XXV, 87-9) A rajasuya yajña with prayers to mahesvara is also linked to many pieces of gold.

Another translation: “Thereupon that foremost of twice born ones Usanas of austere penances, wishing the prosperity of the sacrifice, said to Ravana the Rakshasa chief “Hear,I shall relate to thee everything, O king ;thy son hath met with the fruits of many a sacrifice AgnistomaAsvamedha,

Bahusuvarnaka.” (vrm 7.30)

(B.Ch. Chhabra, Yupa Inscriptions, in: Jean Ph. Vogel, 1947,India antiqua, Brill Archive, p.82).

Generosity associated with the performance of yajña is referenced in a yupa inscription. “Let the foremost amongst the priests and whatsoever pious men (there be) hear of the generous deed of Mulavarman, let them hear of his great gift, his gift of cattle, his gift of a kalpavRkSam, his gift of land’.”

Thus, Yupa inscriptions of Mulavarma are delineation of an economic institution. Vogel also notes: “Both the scholarship and the workmanship of our yupa inscriptions bear testimony of a considerable degree of Hindu culture in Eastern Borneo during the period to which they belong.” Mulavarman’s grandfather KuNDungga had the cooperation of Hindu priests ‘who had come here from different parts’ (Vogel, 1918, pp. 167-232).

The names of yajñas are clearly related to the ‘fruits of the yajña’ which is to yield बहुसुवर्णक, bahusuvarṇaka, ‘many pieces of gold’. That this is recognized as a Soma yajña reaffirms Soma not as a herbal but a mineral smelted, furnaced through fire-altars, yajñakuNDa.

The most significant insight provided by Dr. Satya Prakash is that ALL yupa inscriptions of Rajasthan have octagonal yupa for somayajñas. Chhabra and Vogel have reported on Mulavarman yupa inscriptions of East Borneo. They are also somayajñas, one is bahusuvarNaka as mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana.

Ancient numismatic evidences validate the yupa as a hieroglyph — as in the case of Binjor octagonal brick yupa discovered in April 2015 by the students of the Inst. of Arcaheology, ASI, Delhi — (together with other hieroglyphs such as svastika, tree, elephant, pair of fishes, ujjain symbol) in the Indus Script tradition.

That yupa occurs on ancient coins is an evidence that the work in ancient mints related to the performance of yajñas and yupa had firmed up as a sacred symbol, a hieroglyph. In Greek, hieroglyph means ‘sacred writing’. The work in a mint was like work in a temple. Hence in Kota language the same word kole.l signifies both a temple and a smithy/forge.

बहु–हिरण्य [p= 726,1] mf(आ)n. rich in gold A1pS3r. m. N. of an एकाह commonly called दूणाश Ka1tyS3r. दूणाश a. Difficult to destroy.

The first yupa studied by Vogel (1918) mentions a Soma Yaga called

बहुसुवर्णक bahusuvarṇaka adj. Possessing many gold pieces This expression is used twice in the Ramayana (as noted by Chhabra, 1947, pp. 77-82). The translation of the quote from Ramayana : “Thereupon that foremost of twice born ones Usanas of austere penances, wishing the prosperity of the sacrifice, said to Ravana the Rakshasa chief “Hear,I shal relate to thee everything, O king ;thy son hath met with the fruits of many a sacrifice AgnistomaAsvamedhaBahusuvarnaka.” (Valmiki Ramayana 7.30)

The list of 19 yupa inscriptions is as follows:

1 Isapur Mathura, 102 CE

2 Kosam-Allahabad 125 CE

3-4 Nandasa Udaipur 225 CE

5 Barnala Jaipur 227 CE

6-8 Badva Kotah 238 CE

9 Badva Kotah 238 CE

10 Nagar Jaipur 264 CE

11 Barnala Jaipur 278 CE

12 Bijayagarh Bharatpur 371 CE

13-16 Koetei Borneo 400 CE

17-19 Koetei Borneo 400 CE

Shapes of Yupa: A. Commemorative stone yupa, Isapur – from Vogel, 1910-11, plate 23; drawing based on Vedic texts – from Madeleine Biardeau, 1988, 108, fig. 1; cf. 1989, fig. 2); C. Miniature wooden yupa and caSAla from Vaidika Samsodana Mandala Museum of Vedic sacrificial utensils – from Dharmadhikari 1989, 70) (After Fig. 5 in Alf Hiltebeitel, 1988, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, Univ. of Chicago Press, p.22)

The insights provided by Dr. Satya Prakash in the JRIHR article (1968) are emphatic that the Yupa inscriptions record the performance of Vedic Yajñas.

“No other state of India has yielded as many Yajastambhas as the present united State of Rajasthan. All these pillars are dated in Krita era (Malava era) and are interesting from several points of view. The existence of these pillars in Kotah, Jaipur, Udaipur, Tonk and Bharatpur areas of Rajasthan is a definite proof of the performance of Vedic sacrifices in these areas in the early centuries of the Christian era, to which period these belong on the bsis of the times mentioned in them in the corresponding Malava Samvat. These inscriptional religious pillars were set p immediately after the performance of Vedic sacrifices. All these pillars are indicative of the performance of Vedic sacrifices (Vedic Yajñas) in various areas of Rajasthan and are inscribed in the Brahmi script and in Sanskrit language and belong to the 3rd and 4th centuries of the Christian era, but we can trace the tradition of putting up inscribed pillars to pre-christian era, to which period belong the pillars and Incribed rock edict of Asoka at Bairat, which was, then a stronghold of Buddhist faith. The inscription (Dr. R. Sahni mentions in his excation report on Bairat that the Yupa devices were also found used on the Yaudheya coins of about the beginning of the Christian era) from Ghoshundi, near Nagri the old Madhyamika Nagri (in the present Cchittorgarah ditrict) of the days of Patanjali’s Mahabhashya mentioning the performance of a horse sacrifice is also very interesting. This is s a proof of the fact that Nagri and its vicinity was not only the centre of Buddhist activities and Greek incursions but it was also a stronghold of Brahminical faith and horse sacrifices were performed there.It was also the centre of Samkarshana Vasudeva worship in whose honour a stone enclosure (Silaprakara) was constructed there…An inscriptional reference to the performance of Vajapeya sacrifice is also available from an epigraph of the 4th century AD to which period belongs a Yupa pillar also. A terracotta seal found by Col. Hendley at Sambhar during excavations by him was studied by DR Sahni and he interprets the principal impression as displaying a sacrificial post (Yupa) surrounded by a railing. The upper portion of the post is bent down to about the middle of the shaft taken by Sahni to display the mystic symbol Swastika while the sixth one as showing a triangular pattern with five cross bars. This last device appears to represent the ladder by which the sacrificer and his wife ascended to the top of the Yupa and looking in the different directions silently enchanted prayers and offered by Prajapati 17 pieces of salt tied up to Pippala leaves. The setting up of Yupas in the celebration of Yajñas stands recorded in the Atharva Veda. Several ancient inscriptions on stone and other monumental evidences show the performance of such sacrifices done I the 5th or the 6th centuries AD also. Let us now discuss the details of the Yupa pillar inscriptions.” Yupa pillars of Rajasthan, JRIHR, Vol. IV, No. 2, April-June 1968.

Section 4. metonymy –Vedic Yajñavarāha metaphors in Veda texts, in sculptures of Veda tradition

Tiger, goat and boar adorn two bronze axes; an anthropomorph of pair of eagles, tiger and boar adorn another axe. These are hieroglyphs which signify metalworker (smelter), carpenter, merchant. Kola ‘tiger’ rebus: kol ‘working in iron, blacksmith’; baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’; baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) ‘Rebus: bari ‘merchant’.barea ‘merchant’ (Santali)বরাহ barāha ‘boar’ Rebus: bāṛaï ‘carpenter’ (Bengali) Varāha is explained by वाचस्पत्यम् Vācaspatyam: वराय अभीष्ठाय मुस्तादिलाभाय आहन्ति खनति भूमिम्  To represent a boon, (to obtain) wished, desired products (including species of grass) mined from the earth, by striking, hitting. Eruvai ‘eagle’ rebus: eruvai ‘copper’ dula ‘pair’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’ melh ‘goat’ rebus: milakkhu ‘copper’. Thus the rebus renderings of the hypertexts on the three axes signify merchants of metal castings of copper, iron by blacksmith-carpenter and metalcaster.

Hieroglyph: dhAv ‘strand’ Rebus, the semantic elaboration of dhāv ‘a red stone ore’ is identified in the gloss: dhā̆vaḍ ‘iron-smelters’. There is a place-name in Karnataka called dhā̆rvā̆ḍ

The suffix-vā̆ḍ in the place-name is also explained in the context of ‘rope’ hieroglyph: vaṭa2 ʻ string ʼ lex. [Prob. ← Drav. Tam. vaṭam, Kan. vaṭivaṭara, &c. DED 4268] N. bariyo ʻ cord, rope ʼ; Bi. barah ʻ rope working irrigation lever ʼ, barhā ʻ thick well — rope ʼ, Mth. barahā ʻ rope ʼ.(CDIAL 11212) Ta. vaṭam cable, large rope, cord, bowstring, strands of a garland, chains of a necklace; vaṭi rope; vaṭṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to tie. Ma. vaṭam rope, a rope of cowhide (in plough), dancing rope, thick rope for dragging timber. Ka. vaṭa, vaṭara, vaṭi string, rope, tie. Te. vaṭi rope, cord. Go. (Mu.) vaṭiya strong rope made of paddy straw (Voc. 3150). Cf. 3184 Ta. tār̤vaṭam. / Cf. Skt. vaṭa- string, rope, tie; vaṭāraka-, vaṭākara-, varāṭaka- cord, string (DEDR 5220). Rebus: vaDlangi ‘carpenter’ (Telugu)  వడ్లవాడు.వర్ధకి (p. 1142) [ vardhaki ] vardhaki. [Skt.] n. A carpenter. వడ్లవాడు.వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు (p. 1133) [ vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu ] or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లతor వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste.

वर्धक [p= 926,1]mfn. cutting, dividing, cutting off , shearing (» माष- and श्मश्रु-व्°)m. a carpenter R. 11371 *varddhr̥ ʻ cutter, knife ʼ. [√vardh]

*varddhrī –: N. bāṛ ʻ blade of khukri ʼ; Bi. bāṛh ʻ bookbinder’s papercutter ʼ; H. bāṛhbāṛ f. ʻ edge of knife ʼ, G. vāḍh f.; — P. vāḍhbāḍh f. ʻ cutting edge ʼ poss. < *vārddhrī — .

*vardharī — , *vardhā̆ra — : Bi. badhrī°riyā°rābadhārū ʻ knife with a heavy blade for reaping with ʼ; <-> WPah.bhad. bardhāṇū ʻ to shear sheep ʼ < *badhār — ṇū? 11372 vardha1 m. ʻ a cutting ʼ W. [√vardh]S. vaḍhu m. ʻ a cut ʼ; L. vaḍḍh m. ʻ ears of corn remaining in a field after sheaves have been removed ʼ; P. vaḍḍhba° m. ʻ a cut in a piece of wood, chip, stubble of grain (wheat, maize, &c.) ʼ, vaḍḍhāba° m. ʻ cut, mark ʼ; G. vāḍh m. ʻ cut, wound, reaping a field ʼ; Si. vaḍa — ya ʻ act of cutting off ʼ; — K. broḍu m. ʻ septum of nose ʼ? 11374 vardhaka in cmpd. ʻ cutting ʼ, m. ʻ carpenter ʼ R. [√vardh]Pa. cīvara — vaḍḍhaka — m. ʻ tailor ʼ; Kho. bardog, °ox ʻ axe ʼ (early → Kal. wadók before v — > b — in Kho.); <-> Wg. wāṭ ʻ axe ʼ, Paš.dar. wāˊṭak (?).

vardhaki 11375 vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh]Pa. vaḍḍhaki — m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï — m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa — m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. bāḍhōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) bāḍhi m., N. baṛhaïbaṛahi, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï°ṛui, Or. baṛhaï°ṛhāi, (Gaṛjād) bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛahī, Bhoj. H. baṛhaī m., M. vāḍhāyā m., Si. vaḍu — vā.
*vārdhaka –.Addenda: vardhaki — : WPah.kṭg. báḍḍhi m. ʻ carpenter ʼ; kṭg. bəṛhe\i, báṛhi, kc. baṛhe ← H. beside genuine báḍḍhi Him.I 135), J. bāḍhi, Garh. baṛhai, A. also bāṛhai AFD 94; Md. vaḍīnvaḍin pl.
†*vardhakikarman — .11375a †*vardhakikarman — ʻ carpentry ʼ. [vardhaki — , kár- man — ]
Md. vaḍām ʻ carpentry ʼ.11385 *vardhira ʻ axe, hammer ʼ. [Cf. *varddhr̥ –. – √vardh]Kho. bəḍīˊr ʻ sledgehammer (?) ʼ (→ Gaw. bäḍíl), Bshk. baḍīˊr; Phal. baḍhīˊr ʻ axe (?), sledgehammer ʼ AO xviii 227: very doubtful.11381 vardhayati1 ʻ cuts, divides ʼ Dhātup., vardhāpayati1 Weber. [√vardh]Pa. vaḍḍhāpēti ʻ cuts (moustache) ʼ; Kal.rumb. badhém ʻ I cut, shear ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) sōr — bərdēk ʻ custom of cutting an infant’s original hair ʼ; K. ḍoḍ. baḍṇō ʻ to cut ʼ, S. vaḍhaṇu; L. vaḍḍhaṇ ʻ to cut, reap ʼ; P. vaḍḍhṇāba° ʻ to cut, kill, bite ʼ; WPah. (Joshi) bāḍhṇu ʻ to cut ʼ; B. bāṛā ʻ to cut, mend, distribute food ʼ; Or. bāṛhibā ʻ to serve out food ʼ; H. bāḍhnā ʻ to cut, shear, divide ʼ; G. vāḍhvũ ʻ to cut ʼ, vadhervũ ʻ to cut, sacrifice ʼ; M. vāḍhṇẽ ʻ to serve out (food) ʼ (in sense ʻ to fill (a lamp with oil) ʼ rather < vardháyati2). 11387 várdhra m. ʻ leather thong ʼ AV., vardhrī — f. lex., vadhra — m.n. MBh. 2. badhra — (v.l.) MBh. (X √bandh?). [√vardh]1. Pa. Pk. vaddha — m.n. ʻ thong ʼ; S. vaḍhīvāḍhĭ̄ f.; L. vaddhar m., vadhrī f., (Shahpur) vadhar m. ʻ shoulder — strap ʼ; P. vahdarvaddhrībaddharī f., ludh. baddhī f. ʻ leather thong ʼ; Or. badhī ʻ dog’s collar, leather thong round a drum ʼ; Bi. bādhā ʻ strings of a balance ʼ, bādhī ʻ ties fastening bamboo poles to body of cart ʼ; Bhoj. Aw. lakh. bādh ʻ rope, string ʼ; OG. vādhra n. ʻ leather ʼ, G. varadhivādhar, vādhrīvādharṛī f. ʻ leather strap ʼ; M. vādvād(h)ī f. ʻ strap ʼ, vādā m. ʻ whiplash ʼ; Si. vada ʻ leather strap ʼ; — Kal. badrí ʻ leather belt ʼ, Phal. ḍāk — badhrḗi (rather than with NOPhal 34 < *baddhrikā –); — Paš.weg. walāˊ ʻ tie, band ʼ IIFL iii 3, 185 (< *vardh — tra — ?).2. Pa. baddha — n. ʻ thong*vardhrya — .Addenda: várdhra — [< IE. *werdhro — ~ vārdhrī — f. ʻ strap ʼ < IE. *wordhrī — T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 65, but rather like vāˊrdhra — ʻ fit for strap ʼ Pāṇ., n. ʻ strap ʼ vr̥ddhi of várdhra — ]Md. vadu ʻ strap ʼ

Octagonal yupa, caṣāla, ‘snout of boar’, Skambha Sukta, lingodbhava

Source: Figure 44 in Zhu Xintian, 2008, The queen’s stepwell of India Mother divinity with pine cone, Varāha with Varahi holding triśula and yupa with caṣāla (associated with bahusuvarnaka in Ramayana signifying a Soma yaga). This is an extraordinary sculpture depicting the wealth of Bharata during the Bronze Age. Mother earth is shown carrying a pine-cone, signifying agricultural wealth and wealth of mineral resources. VaraHi is seen carrying a caṣāla, on a yupa, signifying wealth creation working with metals. Both read rebus as Harappa Script hypertexts signifying production of metal implements, tools, pots and pans, metalware.


Ash. piċ — kandə ʻ pine ʼ, Kt. pṳ̄ċi, piċi, Wg. puċ, püċ (pṳ̄ċ — kəŕ ʻ pine — cone ʼ), Pr. wyoċ, Shum. lyēwič (lyē — ?).(CDIAL 8407). Cf. Gk. peu/kh f. ʻ pine ʼ, Lith. pušìs, OPruss. peuse NTS xiii 229. The suffix –kande in the lexeme: Ash. piċ– kandə ʻ pine ʼ may be cognate with the bulbous glyphic related to a mangrove root: Koḍ. kaṇḍe root-stock from which small roots grow; ila·ti kaṇḍe sweet potato (ila·ti England). Tu. kaṇḍe, gaḍḍè a bulbous root; Ta. kaṇṭal mangrove, Rhizophora mucronata; dichotomous mangrove, Kandelia rheedii. Ma. kaṇṭa bulbous root as of lotus, plantain; point where branches and bunches grow out of the stem of a palm; kaṇṭal what is bulb-like, half-ripe jackfruit and other green fruits; R. candel.  (DEDR 1171).  Rebus:  khaṇḍakaṇṭa ‘temple front’. Rebus:khānḍa 

‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. Rebus 2: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali)

The skambha (rebus: kammaTa ‘mint’) held in the left hand and a skhambha with caṣāla or Sudarshana cakra held in the right hand of Varāha murti in Somnathpur is a descriptive account of a Soma Yaga celebrated and documented in 19 Yupa inscriptions of Rajasthan, Mathura, Allahabad and East Borneo during the historical periods.

varāha, Somnathpur

 caṣāla atop Yupa (octagonal) with a descriptive repetition of the cakra above the left shoulder. At the bottom of the octagonal yupa, a lotus is signified: tAmarasa ‘lotus’ rebus: tAmra ‘copper’. To the right on the bottom register is a cakra ayudha purusha.


Sivalinga, Lelei, Dist.Sundergarh. A full (Square base the (brahmabhaga), octagonal in the middle (vishnubhaga), cylindrical on top (rudrabhaga signifying the projecgting flame of the fiery pillar of light). I suggest that this is a signifier of wealth, nidhi, padma nidhi: tAmarasa ‘lotus’ rebus: tAmra ‘copper’. Sivapurana explains Lingodbhava in a variant narrative with Brahma (Hamsa) searching for the end of the pillar and Vishnu (Varāha) searching for bottom of the endless pillar of light, so depicted in the Mahesvara temple, Tiruvatturai. Lotus is the centerpiece on the top decorative ring. bloomed lotus is carved as yonipitha, on the base of Sivalinga

Linga. Bali. 52 in. Linga and flame.

Linga and flame

The pillar is a cultural artifact, it belongs to the Hindu tradition. What is the meaning of the symbol with interrelationships in prayer and doctrine? (Snodgrass, Adrian, 1992, The symbolism of the Stupa, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, New Delhi).


Section 7. Skambha Sukta AV (X.7,8) is an ādhyātmikā excursus into ātman and link with paramātman 


Atharva Veda (X.8.2) declares that Heaven and Earth stand fast being pillared apart by the pillar. Like the pillar, twilight of the dawn and dusk split apart the originally fused Heaven and Earth.

Light of dawn ‘divorces the coterminous regions – Sky and Earth – and makes manifest the several worlds. (RV VII.80; cf. VI.32.2, SBr. IV 6.7.9).

‘Sun is spac, for it is only when it rises that the world is seen’ (Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana I.25.1-2). When the sun sets, space returns into the void (JUB III.1.1-2).

Indra supports heavn and earth by ‘opening the shadows with the dawn and the sun’. (RV I.62.5). He ‘extends heaven by the sun; and the sun is the prp whereby he struts it.’ (RV X.111.5).

yé púruṣe bráhma vidús té viduḥ parameṣṭhínam

yó véda parameṣṭhínaṃ yáś ca véda prajā́patim

jyeṣṭháṃ yé brā́hmaṇaṃ vidús te skambhám anusáṃviduḥ (AV X.7.17)


Trans. They who in Purusha understand Brahma know Him who is. Supreme. He who knows Him who is Supreme, and he who knows the Lord of Life, These know the loftiest Power Divine, and thence know Skambha thoroughly. (AV X. 7.17).


Linga-Purana (I.17.5-52; 19.8 ff.) provides a narrative. Siva appeared before Brahma and Vishnu as a fiery linga with thousands of flames. As a Goose, Brahma attempted to fly to the apex of the column; Vishnu as a Boar plunged through the earth to find the foot of the blazing column. Even after a thousand years, they couldn’t reach the destination, bow in homage to the Pillar of the Universe as the Paramaatman.

He is the ‘Pillar supporting the kindreds, that is, gods and men’. (RV I.59.1-2). He is the standard (ketu) of the yajña (equivalent of the dawn), the standard which supports heaven in the East at daybreak. (RV I.113.19; III.8.8).

RV 3.8.8 May the leaders of the rite, the divine A_dityas, Rudras, Vasus, Heaven and Earth, the Earth, the firmament, well pleased, protect our sacrifice; let them raise aloft the standard of the ceremony.

RV 1.119.19 Mother of the gods, rival of Aditi, illuminator of the sacrificer, mighty Us.a_s, shine forth; approving of our prayer, dawn upon us. Do you, who are cherished by all, make us eminent among the people. [Mother of the gods: the gods are awakened at dawn by the worship they then receive, and hence the dawn may be said figuratively to be their parent (ma_ta_ deva_na_m), and in that character she is the enemy, or rival, of Aditi, who is their mother.]


The same spectra of meanings abound in Bauddham, as a symbolic continuum. So it is, the Buddha is a fiery pillar, comprising adorants at the feet marked with the Wheel of Dharma and the apex marked by a Śrivatsa (pair of fishes tied together by a thread, read as hieroglyph composition: ayira (metath. ariya) dhama, mandating norms of social, interpersonal conduct). Just as Agni awakens at dawn, the Buddha is the awakened.

caṣāla चषाल ‘snout of boar’ ligatured to an anthropomorph

Anthropomorph. A composite copper anthropomorphic figure along with a copper sword was found by Dr. Sanjay Manjul, Director, Institute of Archaeology at the Central Antiquity Section, ASI, Purana Qila in 2005. This composite copper anthropomorph is a solitary example in the copper hoard depicting a Varāha ‘boar’ head. The Anthropomorphic figure, its inscription and animal motif that it bears, illustrate the continuity between the Harappan and Early Historical period.

Miedź, med’ (Northern Slavic, Altaic) ‘copper’.
One suggestion is that corruptions from the German “Schmied”, “Geschmeide” = jewelry. Schmied, a smith (of tin, gold, silver, or other metal)(German) result in med ‘copper’.

ayo meḍh ‘metal merchant’ ayo mēdhā ‘metal expert’

PLUS  karṇika ‘spread legs’ rebus: karṇika कर्णिक ‘steersman’.

barāh, baḍhi ‘boar’ vāḍhī, bari, barea ‘merchant’ bārakaśa ‘seafaring vessel’.

eka-shingi ‘one-masted’ koḍiya, khondā   ‘young bull’, koṭiya ‘dhow’, kũdār ‘turner, brass-worker’ kunda ‘fine gold’. Thus, the anthropomorph signifies a steersman/helmsman, metals expert, metals turner (brass worker, goldsmith), metals merchant with a dhow, seafaring vessel.

The boar’s snout is caṣāla and Sarasvati is signified on caṣāla. This is from the temple in Khajuraho.

Vedānāṁ mātaraṁ paśya matasthāṁ.‘Behold goddess Sarasvatī, the mother of Vedas enshrined in me’ says Nārāyaṇa to Nārada [Vyasa’s Mahābhārata, 12 : 326 : 5.]


Sarasvatīha vāgbhūtā śarīram te pravekṣyati Sarasvatī enters the body as speech – [supra 12 : 306 : 6.]

jihvāyām vāk Sarasvatī Sarasvatī dwells in the tongue [- ibid 12 : 231 : 8.].

devī jihvā sarasvatī ‘goddess Sarasvatī is (your) tongue’ says Bhīṣma, in veneration of Viṣṇu – [supra 6 : 61 : 56.].

parama jinendra-vāṇiye Sarasvatī the supreme Lord Jina’s preaching is Sarasvatī – [Pampa, Ādipurāṇa, 1-16.].

The Mahābhārata has referred to Sarasvatī as vāc [12 : 306 : 6] and vaṇī [3 : 132 : 2]. Besides, her beautiful form and lovely celestial body is lauded [3 : 184 : 18].rūpaṁ ca te divyam atyanta kāntam Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 3 Chapter 18


Sacred Yajñavarāha sculptures as hypertexts — iconography explained as hypertexts in Padma-/Vayu-Puranas


“There is an orthodox explanation of the symbolism underlying the boar avatara of Vishnu

given in the Padma-purana. The Vayu-purana also gives the same passage word for word. In them it is stated that the sacrifice (yajña) is as a whole symbolised by the boar, and that its various limbs represent the limbs of the sacrifice. The grunt of the boar corresponds to the Bavia-ghosha and the four legs are the four Vedas : the tusk is the yupastambha (the sacrificial post) ; the tongue stands for agvi (the sacrificial fire) and the bristles constitute darblia grass; the head is the Brahman priest, the bowels form the Udgatri priest, and the genital organ constitutes the Hotri priest required to officiate in the sacrifice. The two eyes of the boar are said to be emblematic of the day and the night, and the ornaments in its ear are taken to represent the Vedangas. The mucous flow from the nose is the ghee, which is delivered into the fire by the spoon {sruva) consisting of the snout (tunda). Prayaschitta is represented by the Varāha’s hoofs and their knees stand for the paśu (the animal victim). The air breathed is the antaratman, the bones of the boar constitute the mantras, and its blood is the soma juice. The vedi (the altar) is symbolised by the shoulders of the boar and the havis is its neck. What is called havya-havya is represented by the rapid movements of the boar; the dakshina fee paid to the priests is its heart. The wife of the sacrificer is its shadow, while the whole body of the animal is taken as representing the sacrificial chamber. One of the ornaments on the body of the boar is made to represent the ceremony called pravargya.” (Gopinatha Rao, TA,1997, Elements of Hindu iconography, Vol. 1, Pt. I, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, p.147)


Pravargya worship, gharma ‘crucible’ or ‘boiler, cauldron’


Hauma Hamiddha provides a succinct account of the ancient Pravargya or Gharma prayer offerings to the Ashvins. “…Bhargava Dadhici, gained the madhuvidya-s from the Ashvins who had fixed on him the head of the horse, hence he worshipped them as th gods of medicine. These ancient memories resulted in the Atharvans instituting a sacrificial pouring for the Ashvins with the mantra AV 7.73 (Shaunaka Samhita of AV samiddhoagnir…). Simultaneously in the Vedic stream of the Bharatas, the school of Prajapatya Vaishvamitras instituted instituted a rite to commemorate the twelve month year also known as Prajapati, with a twelve day pouring to the deities: Savita, agni, matarishvan, the adityas, the nakshatras, the Rta dhAta, Brihaspati, Mitra, Varuna, Indra and Soma. The end of the year was marked symbolically by the beheading of Prajapati by Rudra. The restoration of his head in the new year was through the surgery of the Ashvins. The myth of the cephalic surgery on Prajapati and Dadhici served as the fusion point of these rites during the early settlement of the Bharatas in the sub-continent. This resulted in the Pravargya rite which marks the restoration of the head of yajña or the Prajapati also called Makha’s head in the Brahmana literature. Thus, the Taittiriya Aranyaka states: te deva ashivAvabruvan bhishajau vai stah idam yajñasya shirah prati dhattameti. The head in the Pravargya rite is symbolically denoted by a Pravargya pot. Thus is the rite performed. The Adhvaryu first set up sacrificial fire and offers ghee to Savita.  Then he mixes clay and makes the Pravargya pot with an hour-glass like shape with a spout in the top half from three pieces of clay. He also makes the other chamasas and the ladles for the rite with the remaining clay. They are sun-dried and then the Adhvaryu uses he forceps to hold the Pravargya pot over the Ahaaniya fire and melts ghee in it and the Prastota priest sings the Pravargya Samans during the process. The pot is then placed on a raised altar on a silver disk. Ghee is poured again into it and it is heated by the Adhvaryu and then surrounded by samids and covered with a gold lid and a fire lit. It is fanned with 3 fans till the pot becomes redhot and all except the Yajamana’s wife look at it chanting Yajushes. Finally the other participants leave and the PratiprastAtA priest and Yajamana’s wife not looking at the pot chant the fertility yajushes to TvashTa. Then a goat and a cow are milked and the milk is poured into the Pravargya pot. It is then held by tongs and taken to the Ahavaniya fire and the gharma offering to the Ashvins is made pouring with the formula ‘svAhendrAya svAhendrA vaDh’ is made and the milk is made to overflow from the pot into the fire. The pourings to Pushan and Rudra are made. Then after performing the Agnihotra and worshipping PrANa as Indra and Agni with the formula ‘prANa evanam indratamegnau juhoti’ the Yajamana, his wife and priests eat the congealed milk of the gharma with honey. Adhvaryu then disposes the sacrificial implements used in the rite: the forceps, the tripod, the fans, two fire pokers in the East by arranging them in the shape of a man. The Pratota priest sings the rakshoha samans during the process. Then singing the Shukra Saman the Yajamana, his wife and priests dispose the Pravargya pot on the East on the west side of the Uttaravedi platform. If he desires to slay his foes he lays a death-dealing charm invoking Agni-vaishvAnara and disposes it on the branch of an Audumbara fig tree. He may also dispose it near a termite heap with darbha grass for successful farming. Also finally the soma while not directly offered in the Taittiriya Aranyaka form of the rite, it was possibly originally present as in the soma offering of the Bhrigus to the Ashvins. A relic of this is seen in the Pavamana samans sung in the course of the rite.”

Pravargya worship is thus associated with Dadhici (also known as Dadhyanc – dadhya ‘curd’ PLUS anch (ams’a?) ‘parts’). Dadhici is associated with the making of the weapon called ‘vajra’ from his bones. Dadhici is the son of sage Atharvan. Dadhici’s son was Pippalada. Dadhici is a master of Brahmavidya or Madhuvidya. The narrative refers to Ashvins replacing Dadhici’s head back with the head of a horse and reviving Dadhici to revive Madhuvidya. The making of the Vajra weapon from Dadhici’s bones is the central metallurgical process.

RV 1.80.16 In like manner as of old, so in whatever act of worship Atharvan or father Manu, or Dadhyan~c engaged, their oblations and their hymns were all congregated in that Indra, manifesting his own sovereignty. [Manus.-pita: Manu being the progenitor of all mankind; dadhyan~c or dadhi_ci_, a r.s.i, son of Atharvan].


Significance of the Pravargya, Dadhici, Vajra, bones narratives in metallurgy


The use of bones together with clay is an important metallurgical process to make crucibles which can withstand high temperatures needed to smelt minerals.

“Cupellation is a refining process in metallurgy where ores or alloyed metals are treated under very high temperatures and have controlled operations to separate noble metals like gold and silver from base metals like lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony or bismuth, present in the ore..The primary tool for small scale cupellation was the cupel. Cupels were manufactured in a very careful way. They used to be small vessels shaped in the form of an inverted truncated cone, made out of bone ashes. According to Georg Agricola, the best material was obtained from burned antlers of deer although fish spines could work as well. Ashes have to be ground into a fine and homogeneous powder and mixed with some sticky substance to mould the cupels…Archaeological investigations as well as archaeometallurgical analysys and written texts from the Renaissance have demonstrated the existence of different materials for their manufacture, they could be made also with mixtures of bones and wood ashes, of poor quality, or moulded with a mixture of this kind in the bottom and an upper layer of bone ashes…Archaeological evidence shows that at the beginnings of small scale cupellation, potsherds or clay cupels were used…cupellation was done by fusing the debased metals with a surplus of lead, the bullion or result product of this fusion was then heated in a cupellation furnace to separate the noble metals.”

Brass moulds for making cupels.

Mining areas of the ancient Middle East. Boxes colors: arsenic is in brown, copper in red, tin in grey, iron in reddish brown, gold in yellow, silver in white and lead in black. Yellow area stands for arsenic bronze, while grey area stands for tin bronze.

A cremation urn with a lid from Pakistan, dating to ca. 1200 BC. Swat Valley, Gandhara Grave Culture, made of terracotta.Courtesy of the LACMA, via their online collections: AC1994.234.8a-b. Terracotta

(a) Urn: 17 x 15 in. (43.18 x 38.1 cm); (b) Lid: 2 x 8 1/4 in. (5.08 x 20.96 cm) Gift of Marilyn Walter Grounds (AC1994.234.8a-b)

The nose, face on the Pravargya pot is a Harappa Script hieroglyph. A simple explanation can be offered for the prominence of the ‘nose’ in gharma or Pravargya clay pot.

The rebus reading of mu~h ‘face’ and mu~h ‘ingot’ has been notd. The cognates for mu~h face in languages of Indian sprachbund: Ta. muka (-pp-, -nt-), mukar (-v-, -nt-), mō (-pp-, -nt-) to smell; mōppam smell; nose (DEDR 4886) Ta. mukam face, mouth; Ka. moga face, mouth; Go. (G. Ma.) mukam, (M.) mukum id. (Voc. 2861); (A. S. Ko.) mokom id (Voc. 2972). Konḍa mokom id.;Kuwi (Su. P. Isr. F.) mūmbu, (S.) mūmbū, (Mah.) mūkā id. (DEDR 4889) Ko. mu·k nose, funnel of bellows; mu·kn man with long nose; fem. mu·ky. To. mu·k nose (in songs); Koḍ. mu·kï nose. Tu. mūku, mūgu, mūṅku nose, beak; Ta. mūkku nose, nostril, beak, nose-shaped part of anything; Te. mukku nose, beak, end, point, tip. Kol. muŋgaḍ (Kin.) mukk, (SR.)  mukku nose (DEDR 5024)

Allograph: See frogs on the Dong Son Bronze drums: Kur. mūxā frog.  Malt. múqe id. / Cf. Skt. mūkaka- id. (DEDR 5023) If the rebus reading was the same as in Santali muha~ (as an Autro-asiatic gloss of Indian sprachbund), the message conveyed by the bronze-smiths of Dong Son can be interpreted: that iron castings are also part of the supercargo conveyed together with the bronze drums.

Hieroglyph: múkha n. ʻ mouth, face ʼ RV., ʻ entrance ʼ MBh.Pa. mukha — m.; Aś.shah. man. gir. mukhato, kāl. dh. jau. °te ʻ by word of mouth ʼ; Pk. muha — n. ʻ mouth, face ʼ, Gy. gr. hung. muy m., boh. muy, span. muí, wel. mūīf., arm. muc̦, pal. mu‘, mi‘, pers. mu; Tir.  ʻ face ʼ; Woṭ.  m. ʻ face, sight ʼ; Kho. mux ʻ face ʼ; Tor.  ʻ mouth ʼ, Mai. mũ; K. in cmpds. mu — ganḍ m. ʻ cheek, upper jaw ʼ, mū — kāla ʻ having one’s face blackened ʼ, rām. mūī˜, pog. mūī, ḍoḍ. mū̃h ʻ mouth ʼ; S. mũhũ m. ʻ face, mouth, opening ʼ; L. mũh m. ʻ face ʼ, awāṇ. mū̃ with descending tone, mult. mũhã m. ʻ head of a canal ʼ; P. mū̃h m. ʻ face, mouth ʼ, mū̃hã̄ m. ʻ head of a canal ʼ; WPah.śeu. mùtilde; ʻ mouth, ʼ cur. mū̃h; A. muh ʻ face ʼ, in cmpds. — muwā ʻ facing ʼ; B. mu ʻ face ʼ; Or. muhã ʻ face, mouth, head, person ʼ; Bi. mũh ʻ opening or hole (in a stove for stoking, in a handmill for filling, in a grainstore for withdrawing) ʼ; Mth. Bhoj. mũh ʻ mouth, face ʼ, Aw.lakh. muh, H. muhmũh m.; OG. muha, G. mɔ̃h n. ʻ mouth ʼ, Si. muyamuva. — Ext. — l<-> or — ll — : Pk. muhala — , muhulla — n. ʻ mouth, face ʼ; S. muhuro m. ʻ face ʼ (or < mukhará — ); Ku. do — maulo ʻ confluence of two streams ʼ; Si. muhulmuhunamūṇa ʻ face ʼ H. Smith JA 1950, 179.; — —  — : S. muhaṛo m. ʻ front, van ʼ; Bi. (Shahabad) mohṛā ʻ feeding channel of handmill ʼ. — Forms poss. with expressive — kkh — : seemúkhya — . — X gōcchā — s.v. *mucchā — .mukhará — , múkhya — , maukhya — ; *mukhakāṣṭha — , *mukhaghāṭā — , mukhacandra — , *mukhajāla — , *mukhanātha — , mukhatuṇḍaka — , *mukhatuttikā — , *mukhadhara — , mukhaśuddhi — , *mukhahāra — , mukhāgra — , *mukhāñcala — , *mukhānta — , *mukhāyana — ; amukhá — , abhimukhá — , āmukha — , unmukha — , *nirmukha — ; adhōmukha — , ūrdhvamukha — , kālamukha — , gṓmukha — , caturmukha — , *paścamukha — , valīmukha — , śilīmukha — , saṁmukhá — , *sāṁmukha — , sumukha — .Addenda: múkha — : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) mū̃ (with high level tone) m. (obl. — a) ʻ mouth, face ʼ; OMarw. muhaṛaü ʻ face ʼ.(CDIAL 10158)

Rebus: mũh ‘ingot’ (Munda) mũh ʻ opening or hole (in a stove for stoking, in a handmill for filling, in a grainstore for withdrawing) ʼ (Bihari)(CDIAL 10158)mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = copper; milakkha (Pali) mu~hu~ = face (S.); rebus: mu_ha ‘smelted ingot’ [mũh opening or hole (in a stove for stoking, in a handmill for filling, in a grainstore for withdrawing)(Bi.)]


दध्यन्च् पु० दधिं धारकमञ्चति अन्च–क्विप् । अथर्वर्षिपुत्रे दधीचौ मुनिभेदे “दध्यङ्ङाथर्वणस्त्वष्ट्रे” भाग० ६६ । ९ । ५१

“स वा अधिगतो दध्यङ्ङश्विभ्यां ब्रह्म निष्कलम्” भाग० ६ । ९ । ५५ । “यामथर्वा मनुष्पिता दध्यङ्धियमत्नत

इत्यृचमधिकृत्य निरुक्ते तु १२ । ३३ अन्या निरुक्तिरुक्ता “दध्यङ्प्रत्यक्तो ध्यानमिति वा प्रत्यक्तमस्मिन् ध्यानमिति

वा” । “दध्यङ् ह नन्मध्वाथर्वणो वामश्वस्य शीर्ष्णा प्र यदीमुवाच” ऋ० १ । ११६ । १२ । आथर्वणः अथर्वणः पुत्रो

दध्यङ् एतत्संज्ञ ऋषिरवस्य शीर्ष्णा युष्मत्नामर्थ्येन प्रतिहितेन शिरसा वाँ युवाभ्यामीमिमां मधुविद्यां यद्

यदा खलु प्रोवाच प्रोक्तवान् । तदानीमश्वस्य शिरसः सन्धानलक्षणं पुनर्मानुषस्य शिरसः प्रतिसन्धानलक्षणं

च यद्भवदीयं कर्म तदाविष्कृणोनीत्यर्द्धः । अत्रेयमा- ख्यायिका “इन्द्रो दधीचे प्रवर्ग्यविद्यां मधुविद्यां

चोपदिश्यं यदीमामनस्मै वक्ष्यसि शिरस्ते छेत्स्यामी- त्युवाच । ततोऽश्विनावश्वस्य शिरश्छित्वा दधीचः शिरः-

प्रच्छिद्यान्यत्र निधाय तत्राश्व्यं शिरः प्रत्यधत्तां तेन च दध्यङ् ऋचः सामानि यजूंषि च प्रवर्ग्यविषयाणि

मधुविद्याप्रतिपादकं ब्राह्मणं चाश्विनावध्यापयामास । तदिन्द्रो ज्ञात्वा वज्रेण तच्छिरोऽच्छिनत् । अथाश्विनौ

तस्य स्वकीयं मानुषं शिरः प्रत्यधत्तामिति । शाट्यायन- वाजसनेययोः प्रपञ्चेनोक्तम् । तस्य टादावजादौ दधीचः

दधीचा इत्यादि । ततः स्वार्थे अण् इञ् वा पृषो० वृद्ध्यभावे । दधीच दधीचि इति रूपमित्यवधेयम् ।वाचस्पत्यम्

दधीचः, पुं, दधीचिमुनिः । इति शब्दभेदप्रकाशः ॥(यथा, महाभारते । १ । १३८ । १२ ।“दथीचस्यास्थितो वज्रं कृतं दानवसूदनम् ॥”)दधीचिः, पुं, मुनिविशेषः । स अथर्व्वमुनेरौरसात्कर्द्दमकन्यायां शान्तिनाम्न्यां जातः । वृत्र-वधार्थं देवैरस्यास्थ्ना वज्रं निर्म्मितम् । इतिश्रीभागवतम् ॥ यथा, –“ऋतेऽस्थिभ्यो दधीचस्य निहन्तुं त्रिदशद्बिषः ।तस्मात् यत्नादृषिश्रेष्ठो याच्यतां सुरसत्तमाः ॥दधीचेऽस्थीनि देहीति तैर्व्वधिष्यथ दानवान् ।तत् श्रुत्वा सहसा देवैर्याचितो मुनिभिस्तथा ॥ददौ चास्थीनिं देवेभ्यो दधीचिः सुमनास्तदा ।प्राणायामं ततः कृत्वा देहं त्यक्त्वा सुभास्वरान् ॥सर्व्वलोकान् क्षयान् प्राप्तो येभ्यो नावर्त्तनं पुनः ।

तस्यास्थिभिरथो शक्रः प्रहृष्टः सुमनास्तथा ॥कारयामास दिव्यानि तानि प्रहरणान्युत ।वज्रासिशूलचक्रञ्च परिघा विविधा गदाः ॥विश्वकर्म्मा सुराणान्तु परिघाद्यायुधानि च ॥”इति वह्निपुराणे दानावस्थानिर्णयनामाध्यायः ॥ दधीच्यस्थि, क्ली, (दधीचेरस्थि ।) वज्रम् । हीर-कम् । इति त्रिकाण्डशेषः ॥शब्दकल्पद्रुमः

Varaha sculpture of Khajuraho is 2.8 m. long and 1.7 m. high. Sandstone. 672 Veda divinities adorn the entire body. Sarasvati is shown on the caṣāla, ‘snout’. Views ot the sculpture are presented.

Four-armed Sarasvati with mesha as vahana, from Chhatingram, Adamdihi (Bogra Dist.), Bangladesh, black stone, c. 12th cent., now VR Museum, Rajshahi (Acc. No. 76) Thee association of mesha relates to Harappa Script metalwork data archiving tradition. meDha ‘ram’ rebus: med ‘copper’ (Slavic) meD ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)



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