Tinsmiths among Bharatam Janam signify kunda saṃghāta, bhasma, gold metal calx in Harappa Script Corpora

Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/jslxscr
The process of calx in metallurgy is referred to as Vajra Saṃghāta ‘binding together’.
1. I suggest that the most frequently occurring pictorial hypertext narrative on Harappa Script Corpora of 1. one-horned young bull PLUS 2. standard device of lathe/brazier is a signifier of Saṃghāta , ‘adamantine, metallic glue’. More specifically, it could be kunda bhasma ‘fine gold calx’, a process gold-plating comparable to tinning of a plate with calcined cassiterite (tin) mineral powder. The word calx or calcination may be derived from கலாயி  kalāyi, n. < U. galaī.Calx (From Arabic “کلس”).
2. I suggest that the tin panning practised by smelters of Bharata (as evidenced in the picture gallery) is likely to be the practice of ancient tin mining in Mekong, Irrawaddy and Salween Himalayan glacial river deltas of Ancient Far East in the largest tin belt of the globe. Tin (cassiterite) is formed by grinding down granite rocks by the grinding motions of the Himalayan glacial rivers accumulating cassiterite mineral in the river beds. The tin belt of the globe is the likely source of tin (a mineral constituent with copper to produce bronze alloy) which resulted in the Bronze Age Revolution ca. 5th millennium BCE.
3. I suggest that further researches are needed to delineate the Maritime Tin Route of Seafaring merchants and artisans who traded in tin from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel) from 5th millennium BCE based on the Harappa Script hieroglyphs signified on Karen and Dong Son Bronze Drums..
ts10ts11ts12Joined animals on Dwaraka tubinella pyrum s’ankha seal is a hieroglyph: barad, barat ‘ox’ rebus: bharata ‘alloy of pewter, copper, tin’ PLUS khond ‘young bull’ rebus: kunda ‘fine gold’ PLUS melh ‘goat’ rebus: milakkhu ‘copper’; together read as: sangaDa ‘joined animals’ rebus:  saṃghāta, ‘calx’. The standard device of lathe/portable furnace show in front of the one-horned bull on many artifacts is thus a semantic determinative of  saṃghāta, ‘calx’– vajra sanghata, an adamantine glue of metal (composed of gold, pewter and copper) and  worked on by kundar ‘turner’. The expression vajra sanghata explains the octagonal shape of the thunderbolt carried by Vajrapani on sculptural friezes and also 1. the octagonal shape of the yupa  consecrated before starting a Soma SamshtA yAga; and 2. the octagonal shape of RudrabhAga of S’ivalinga. The metaphor is emphatic and constitutes an expression of awe and wonder on how infusion of carbon (carburization) into metal in a furnace (yajnakunda) is mediated by the burning of wheatchaff (godhuma) set atop the Yupa as caṣāla  (according to Rigveda, Taittiriya Samhita and Satapatha Brahmana).
vajra1Vajrapani on a sculptural frieze. The Vajra or thunderbolt is octagonal shape like an hour-glass.
“Adamantine glue using metal. The cement, Vajra-sanghata is to be compounded of 8 parts of lead, 2 parts of bell metal and 1 part of brass, melted and poured hot. It is stated that when this type of cement is applied to temple, etc. they last for around thousand years. Vajra-sanghata means, composition as hard as thunderbolt.”
http://www.niscair.res.in/sciencecommunication/researchjournals/rejour/ijtk/Fulltextsearch/2006/April%202006/IJTK-vol%205(2)-April%202006-pp%20259-262.htm “Brhatsamhita of Varaha-Mihira (5-6th century CE) describes the materials and methods of cementing material in chapter Vajralepa. This chapter describes three different ways of adamantine glue preparations using either metal alloys or animal matters using herbal components. Although detailed information about the procedure and composition of adamantine glue from metal alloys or animal matters is given, no such detailed information is available regarding preparation of herbal adamantine glue. In this study, an attempt has been made to get the optimum composition and efficient procedure for preparation of herbal glue. The methodology suggested is found to give maximum bond strength of 97 KPa. The adamantine glue is ecofriendly and hygienic. The study may provide useful insight into the chemistry of green cement. There were ample uses of glue in the temple architecture of that period, the remains of which bear testimony to the strength of these cements.
Mixture of 8 lead, 2 bell-metal, 1 iron rust or brass. The one-horned young bull signified kunda, ‘fine gold’.
sangadaIn front of it is the device of lathe/portable furnace: sangaDa. The rebus reading of this word for the device is:  saṃghāta, a technical metallurgical term used by Varahamihira.
Documenting the Tin processing tradition in India
Bihar, India | Massive anklets with ball decoration | Brass with tin | ca. prior to 1867:
Anklets pair, brass with tin, Bihar, before 1867.. Museum Number 965A-1874.
See: http://tinyurl.com/js4uyd8 Includes a pictorial gallery of tin workers of Bharatam.

1. Panning for cassiterite using bamboo pans in a pond in Orissa.

2.The ore is carried to the water pond or stream for washing in bamboo baskets.

3. People panning for cassiterite mineral in the remote jungles of central Bharata.

4.The ore is washed to concentrate the cassiterite mineral using bamboo pans.

5. Base of small brick and mud furnace for smelting tin.

6.The tin is refined by remelting the pieces recovered from the furnace in an iron pan.

7.The molten tin is poured into stone-carved moulds to make square- or rectangular-ingots.

As the pictorial gallery demonstrates, the entire tin processing industry is a family-based or extended-family-based industry. The historical traditions point to the formation of artisan guilds to exchange surplus cassiterite in trade transactions of the type evidenced by the seals and tablets, tokens and bullae as accounting devices found in the civilization-interaction area of the Bronze Age. The Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi to Haifa can be posited.

As the pictorial gallery demonstrates, the entire tin processing industry is a family-based or extended-family-based industry. The historical traditions point to the formation of artisan guilds to exchange surplus cassiterite in trade transactions of the type evidenced by the seals and tablets, tokens and bullae found in the civilization-interaction area of the Bronze Age.
two late bronze age tin ingots from the harbor of Haifa, Israel contain glyphs used in epigraphs with Indus Writing of Sarasvati civilization!See:http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2011/11/archaeological-mystery-solved-site-of.htmlThe inscriptions on two pure tin ingots found in a shipwreck in Haifa have been discussed in: Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies, Vol. 1, Number 11 (2010) — The Bronze Age Writing System of Sarasvati Hieroglyphics as Evidenced by Two “Rosetta Stones” By S. Kalyanaraman (Editor of JIJS: Prof. Nathan Katz)http://www.indojudaic.com/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=1&Itemid=8 (See embedded document).
Papagudem boy wearing a bangle of tin

“Bronze articles such as ornamental mirrors, arrowheads, pins, bangles and chisels, of both low tin and high tin content, have been recovered from Lothal, the Harappn port on the Gujarat coast, which has been dated earlier than 2200 BCE. The tin content in these articles range from 2.27% to 11.82%; however, some of the articles contain no tin. Tin is said to have been brought as tablets from Babylon and mixed with copper to make an alloy of more pleasing colour and luster, a bright golden yellow. The utilization of bronze is essential only for certain articles and tools, requiring sharp cutting edges, such as axes, arrowheads or chisels. The selection of bronze for these items indicates the presence of tin was intentional…Recent discoveries of tin occurrences in India are shown in…Fig. 11.2. However, none of these occurrences shows evidences of ancient mining activity. This is because, unlike copper ores, the mining and metallurgy of the tin ore cassiterite is simple, and leaves little permanent trace…tin ore is usually recovered by simple panning of surface deposits, often contained in gravel, which soon collapse, leaving little evidence of having once been worked. Cassiterite is highly resistant to weathering, and with its high specific gravity, it can be easily separated from the waste minerals. The simple mining and metallurgical methods followed even now by Bastar and Koraput tribals in Chattisgarh and Orissa, central India, could be an indication of the methods used in the past. These tribal people produce considerable quantities of tin without any external help, electric power or chemical agents, enough to make a modern metallurgist, used to high technology, wonder almost in disbelief. Clearly though, the technology practiced has a considerable importance for those studying early smelting practices. The history of this process is poorly known. Back in the 1880s Ball (1881) related the story of a Bastar tribal from the village of Papagudem, who was observed to be wearing a bangle of tin. When questioned as to where the metal had come from, he replied that black sands, resembling gunpowder were dug in his village and smelted there. Thus it is very likely that the present industry is indigenous, and may have a long history. That being said, neither the industry or its products appear in any historical document of any period, and thus is unlikey to have been a significant supplier of metal…The tin content of cassiterite ranges from 74.94% (mean 64.2%), showing that pebbles contain about 70% to 90% of the tin oxide, cassiterite…The ore is localized in gravel beds of the black pebbles of cassiterite which outcrop in stream beds etc. and there are other indicators, in the vegetation. The leaves of the Sarai tree (Shoria robusta) growing on tin-rich ground are often covered in yellow spots, as if suffering from a disease. (The leaves were found to contain 700 ppm of tin on analysis!) Wherever the tribals find concentrations of ore in the top soil, the ground all around the area is dug up and transported to nearby streams, rivers or ponts…The loose gravelly soil containing the tin ore is dug with pick and shovel, and carried to the washing sites in large, shoulder-strung bamboo baskets. The panning or washing of the ore is carrie out using round shallow pans of bamboo. The soil is washed out, leaving the dense casiterite ore at the bottom of the pan…The ore is smelted in small clay shaft furnaces, heating and reducing the ore using charcoal as the fuel…The shft furnaces are square at the base and of brick surmounted by a clay cylindrical shaft…The charcoal acts as both the heating and reducing agent, reducing the black cassiterite mineral into bright, white tin metal…a crude refining is carried out by remelting the metal in an iron pan at about 250 degrees C. The molten tin is then poured into the stone-carved moulds to make square- or rectangular-shaped tin ingots for easy transportation.  (Babu, TM, 2003, Advent of the bronze age in the Indian subcontinent in: Craddock, PT and J. Lang, Mining and Metl production through the ages, British Museum,  pp.174-180).

Regional concentrations of early Dong Son bronze drums and main river routes on the mainland and in western Indonesia. https://www.flickr.com/photos/doremon360/3772864141/in/set-72157602097553987/
Dong Song drum findings, Vietnam. Dong Song is a pre-historic Bronze Age culture whichdominated the Far East as a continuum of the neolithic Hoabinhian stone tool industry of the FarEast..
ts8Discovery spots of Karen/Dong Son Bronze drums in the tin belt of the globe in Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween river deltas
Image on the Ngoc Lu bronze drum’s surface, Vietnam. Kur. mūxā frog. Malt. múqe id. / Cf. Skt. mūkaka- id.(DEDR 5023) Rebus:  mũh, muhã ‘ingot‘ or muhã ‘quantity of metal taken out of furnace’; मूका f. a crucible L. (= or w.r. for मूषा).
káṅkata m. ʻ comb ʼ AV. (CDIAL 2598).

S. kaṅgu m. crane, heron (→ Bal. kang); kaṅká m. heron VS. Rebus: kang ‘brazier, fireplace’ (Kashmiri) kaṅká m. ʻ heron ʼ VS. [← Drav. T. Burrow TPS 1945, 87; onomat. Mayrhofer EWA i 137. Drav. influence certain in o of M. and Si.: Tam. Kan. Mal. kokku ʻ crane ʼ, Tu. korṅgu, Tel. koṅga, Kuvi koṅgi, Kui kohko]Pa. kaṅka — m. ʻ heron ʼ, Pk. kaṁka — m., S. kaṅgu m. ʻ crane, heron ʼ (→ Bal. kang); B. kã̄k ʻ heron ʼ, Or. kāṅka; G. kã̄kṛũ n. ʻ a partic. ravenous bird ʼ; — with o from Drav.: M. kõkā m. ʻ heron ʼ; Si. kokā, pl. kokku ʻ various kinds of crane or heron ʼ, kekī ʻ female crane ʼ, kēki ʻ a species of crane, the paddy bird ʼ (ē?).(CDIAL 2595)
ranku ‘antelope’ rebus: ranku ‘tin’.
Đông Sơn bronze drum mid-1st millennium BCE fabricated by the Đông Sơn culture in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam were produced from about 600 BCE or earlier until the third century CE.
Dong Song drum findings, Vietnam. Dong Song is a pre-historic Bronze Age culture which dominated the Far East as a continuum of the neolithic Hoabinhian stone tool industry of the Far East.

Calx (From Arabic “کلس”) is a residual substance, sometimes in the form of a fine powder, that is left when a metal or mineralcombusts or is calcinated due to heat. Calx, especially of a metal, is now known as an oxidehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calx கலாயி kalāyi, n. < U. galaī. Tin used for tinning vessels; பாத்திரங்கட்குப் பூசப்படும் ஈயம். Loc. Synonym: செந்தூரி-த்தல் centūri -, 11 v. intr. < செந்தூரம். To calcine; சிந்தூரமாக்குதல். (யாழ். அக.)”Tinning is the process of thinly coating sheets of wrought iron or steel with tin, and the resulting product is known as tinplate. It is most often used to prevent rust.While once more widely used, the primary use of tinplate now is the manufacture of tin cans. Formerly, tinplate was[clarification needed] used for cheap pots, pans and other holloware. This kind of holloware was also known as tinware and the people who made it were tinplate workers. The untinned sheets employed in the manufacture are known as black plates. They are now made of steel, either Bessemer steel or open-hearth. Formerly iron was used, and was of two grades, coke iron and charcoal iron; the latter, being the better, received a heavier coating of tin, and this circumstance is the origin of the terms coke plates and charcoal plates by which the quality of tinplate is still designated, although iron is no longer used…The practice of tinning ironware to protect it against rust is an ancient one. This may have been the work of the whitesmith. This was done after the article was fabricated, whereas tinplate was tinned before fabrication.”


“A tinsmith, sometimes known as a whitesmith, tinner, tinker, tinman, or tinplate worker is a person who makes and repairs things made of tinware, or other light metals. By extension it can also refer to the person who deals in tinware, or tin plate. A whitesmith may work with tin, pewter, or other materials. Unlike blacksmiths (who work mostly with hot metal), tinsmiths do the majority of their work on cold metal (although they might use a hearth to heat and help shape their raw materials). The term is also applied to metalworkers who do only finishing work – such as filing or polishing – on iron and other “black” metals. Whitesmiths fabricate items such as tin or pewter cups, water pitchers, forks, spoons, and candle holders and it was a common occupation in pre-industrial times.The tinsmith, or white smith, learned his trade, like many other artisans, by serving an apprenticeship of 4 to 6 years with a master tinsmith. He learned first to make cake stamps (cookie cutters), pill boxes and other simple items. Next, he formed objects such as milk pails, basins, cake and pie pans. Later he tackled more complicated pieces such as chandeliers and crooked-spout coffee pots. After his apprenticeship was completed, he then became a journeyman, not yet being a master smith employing others. Many young tinsmiths took to the road as peddlers or tinkers in an effort to save enough money to open a shop in town…Pure tin is an expensive and soft metal and it is not practical to use it alone. However it could be alloyed with lead and copper to make pewter or alloyed with copper alone to produce bronze.”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinsmith

Three decorative tin cans of the 15th century at Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte

Tin layer inside of a tin can.

వంగము (p. 1116) vaṅgamu vangamu. [Skt.] n. Lead, tin. సత్తు, తగరము, వంగభస్మము the calx or ashes of lead. వంగదేశము vanga-ḍēsamu. n. The ancient name of Bengal. భస్మము (p. 919) bhasmamu bhasmamu. [Skt.] n. Ashes, calx. బూడిద. తామ్రభస్మము calx of copper. Ainslie. i. 513. భస్మీకరించు bhasmī-karinṭsu. v. a. To reduce to ashes. భస్మము చేయు. भस्मन् a[p= 750,3] n. (also pl.) ” what is pulverized a or calcined by fire ” , ashes AV. &c (युष्माभिर् भस्म भक्षयितव्यम् , ” you shall have ashes to eat ” i.e. ” you shall get nothing ” Hit. ; °मनि-हुत. mfn. ” sacrificed in ashes ” i.e. ” useless ” Pa1n2. 2-1 , 47 Sch.)n. sacred ashes (smeared on the body ; cf. भस्म-धारण). भस्मीकृत a. 1 Reduced to ashes. -2 Calcined (as a metal). -3 Powdered (चूर्णीकृत); तेनैव तोरणेनाथ यक्षस्तेनाभि- ताडितः । नादृश्यत तदा यक्षो भस्मीकृततनुस्तदा ॥ Rām.7.14.29.भस्मा bhasmā (स्मी smī) कृ kṛ भस्मन् n. [भस्-मनिन्] 1 Ashes; (कल्पते) ध्रुवं चिताभस्म- रजो विशुद्धये Ku.5.79. -2 Sacred ashes (smeared on the body); महादेवो$थ तद्भस्म मनोभवशरीरजम् । आदाय सर्व- गात्रेषु भूतिलेपं तदाकरोत् ॥ Kālikā P. (भस्मनि हु ‘to sacrifice in ashes’, i. e. to do a useless work). -वेधकः camphor. -शर्करः (probably) potash. -शायिन् m. N. of Śiva. -सूत-करणम् calcining of quicksilver. -स्नानम् purifica- tion by ashes. பசுமம் pacumam, n. < bhasman. Holy ashes; திருநீறு. பாவம் பற்றறப் பறியப் பறித்தலாற் பசுமம் (வாயுசங். பாசுபதவி. 34).

ఉక్కు (p. 149) ukku ఉక్కుసున్నము ukku-sunnamu. n. Ashes of calcined iron, scoriæ calx. ఉక్కడగించు or ఉక్కడచు ukkaḍaginṭsu


“Authorities differ on the meaning of calcination (also referred to as calcining). The IUPAC defines it as ‘heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen’.However, calcination is also used to mean a thermal treatment process in the absence or limited supply of air or oxygen applied to ores and other solid materials to bring about a thermal decomposition. A calciner is a steel cylinder that rotates inside a heated furnace and performs indirect high-temperature processing (550–1150 °C, or 1000–2100 °F) within a controlled atmosphere.[2] Some chemical changes occur during calcination:

  1. Moisture is driven out.
  2. Volatile impurities of S, As and P are removed as their volatile oxides.
  3. Water is removed from hydrated ores.
  4. It makes ores porous and hence easily workable in subsequent stages…The process of calcination derives its name from the Latin calcinare (to burn lime)due to its most common application, the decomposition of calcium carbonate (limestone) to calcium oxide (lime) and carbon dioxide, in order to create cement. The product of calcination is usually referred to in general as “calcine”, regardless of the actual minerals undergoing thermal treatment. Calcination is carried out in furnaces or reactors (sometimes referred to as kilns or calciners) of various designs including shaft furnaces, rotary kilns, multiple hearth furnaces, and fluidized bed reactors…In alchemy, calcination was believed to be one of the 12 vital processes required for the transformation of a substance. Alchemists distinguished two kinds of calcination, actual and potential. Actual calcination is that brought about by actual fire, from wood, coals, or other fuel, raised to a certain temperature. Potential calcination is that brought about by potential fire, such as corrosive chemicals; for example, gold was calcined in a reverberatory furnace with mercury and sal ammoniac; silver with common salt and alkali salt; copper with salt and sulfur; iron with sal ammoniac and vinegar; tin with antimony; lead with sulfur; and mercury with aqua fortis.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcination

S. Kalyanaraman

Sarasvati Research Center December 11, 2016


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