Harappa Script m0304 hypertext is Meluhha seafaring merchant’s catalogue of Bronze Age repertoire

Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/jrk8cvz

Harappa Script m0304 hypertext is Meluhha seafaring merchant’s catalogue of Bronze Age repertoire

The repertoire is elaborated in the Meluhha inscription on m0304: sodāgor muhã̄ khāṇḍā karṇika ‘ingot, metal equipment account scribe, supercargo, seafaring merchant’ with kammaṭa ‘mint’ & mẽṛhẽt karba ṭhaṭṭar maṇḍā, i.e. ‘brass, iron warehouse’.

This short note explains how this decipherment has been realized.

Donal B. Buchanan has reconstructed this broken seal, m0304 now in National Museum, New Delhi. See report at http://tinyurl.com/hoq2t3e This is often referred to as Pasupathi seal to signify ‘master of animals’ theme which recurs in ancient representations of Ancient Near East.

Reconstructed m0304 seal impression; Broken m0304

mēṭu, mēṭa, mēṭi stack of hay (Telugu)(DEDR 5058) A hayrick decorates the buffalo-horn head-dress and a pair of hayricks flank the base platform. A pair of markhors adorn the platform. Tor. miṇḍ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼSkt. mēṇḍha2 m. ʻ ram ʼPa. meṇḍa — m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka — ʻ made of a ram’s horn (e.g. a bow) ʼ; Pk. meḍḍha — , meṁḍha — (°ḍhī — f.), °ṁḍa — , miṁḍha — (°dhiā — f.), °aga — m. ʻ ram ʼ,(CDIAL 10310) rebus:मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Skt.Santali.Ho.Mu.); med ‘copper’ (Slavic)’ H. mã̄ḍvī f. ʻ slightly raised platform before door of a house, customs house ʼ(CDIAL 9740) Pa. bōdhi — maṇḍa — n. perh. ʻ thatched cover ʼ rather than ʻ raised platform ʼ (BHS ii 402).(CDIAL 9737). Thus, maṇḍa ‘platform’ rebus: maṇḍā ‘warehouse, workshop’ (Konkani) Thus, these hypertexts (hay, platform) signify mẽṛhẽt maṇḍā, iron/metal warehouse.

Hieroglyph: Buffalo horn: thattār ‘buffalo horn’ Rebus: taṭṭār ‘brass worker’ Rebus: N. ṭhaṭṭar ʻ an alloy of copper and bell metal’ (CDIAL 5491) Thus, the hair-dress as hypertext signifies in expanded semantics, warehouse of brassworker. Thus, the message is made more specific: mẽṛhẽt ṭhaṭṭar maṇḍā, i.e. ‘brass, iron warehouse’. The word ṭhaṭṭar is tadbhava from Rigveda त्वष्ट, त्वष्टृ m. a carpenter, maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृ) AV. xii , 3 , 33; त्वष्टा वरूत्री du. ‘Tvastr and his help’ (RV 7.34.22).

The face of the seated person has three profiles blurred with shoggy bristles of hair. sodo bodo, sodro bodro adj. adv. rough, hairy, shoggy, hirsute, uneven Rebus: sodo [Persian. sodā, dealing] trade; traffic; merchandise; marketing; a bargain; the purchase or sale of goods; buying and selling; mercantile dealings (Gujarati) sodagor = a merchant, trader; sodāgor (P.B.) (Santali). The merchant trades in furnaced ingots: mũh ‘a face’ rebus: mũh, muhã ‘ingot’ or muhã ‘quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.’

The person wears wristlets on his arms: karã̄ n. pl. wristlets, bangles rebus: khār ‘blacksmith’ Thus, the person signified is muhã sodāgor khār ‘ingots merchant, blacksmith’.

Hieroglyphs of four animals + standing person with spread legs surround the seated person. See: https://www.facebook.com/srini.kalyanaraman/posts/10155613255799625

Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/zjhdh9a

The hieroglyphs read rebus in Meluhha metalwork vocabulary as a collective, are: pasra ‘animals’ rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’; hence, pasra meṛed, pasāra meṛed = syn. of koṭe meṛed = forged iron (Santali.Mundari)

karabhá m. ʻ young elephant ʼ BhP. 2. kalabhá— ʻ young elephant or camel ʼ Pañcat.(CDIAL 2797) rebus: karba ‘iron’ ajirda karba ‘excellent iron’ (Tulu) ibha ‘elephant’ rebus: ib ‘iron’ ibbo ‘merchant’

kola ‘tiger’ कोलहा [ kōlhā ] कोलहे [kōlhēṃ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol, kolhe, ‘smelter’. The hypertext shows tiger in a jumping posture: kũdā kol (tiger jumping) rebus: kũdār ‘turner’ (Bengali) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) kunda ‘gold’. Thus, the ‘jumping tiger’ hypertext signifies gold-worker and smelter.

rango ‘buffalo’ rebus: rango ‘pewter’ raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga — 2, vaṅga — 1]Pk. raṁga — n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅ, rāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ(CDIAL 10562)

gaṇḍá m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ lex., °aka — m. lex. 2. *ga- yaṇḍa — . [Prob. of same non — Aryan origin as khaḍgá — 1: cf. gaṇōtsāha — m. lex. as a Sanskritized form ← Mu. PMWS 138]1. Pa. gaṇḍaka — m., Pk. gaṁḍaya — m., A. gãr, Or. gaṇḍā.2. K. gö̃ḍ m., S. geṇḍo m. (lw. with g — ), P. gaĩḍā m., °ḍī f., N. gaĩṛo, H. gaĩṛā m., G. gẽḍɔ m., °ḍī f., M. gẽḍā m. Addenda: gaṇḍa — 4. 2. *gayaṇḍa — : WPah.kṭg. geṇḍɔ mirg m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ, Md. genḍā ← H. Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, implements’

कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā ‘legs spread’, ‘rim of jar’, ‘pericarp of lotus’ karaṇī ‘scribe, supercargo’, kañi-āra ‘helmsman’. karṇadhāra m. ʻ helmsman ʼ Suśr. [kárṇa — , dhāra — 1]

Pa. kaṇṇadhāra — m. ʻ helmsman ʼ; Pk. kaṇṇahāra — m. ʻ helmsman, sailor ʼ; H. kanahār m. ʻ helmsman, fisherman ʼ.(CDIAL 2836)

Thus, the five hieroglyphs: four animals + standing person with spread legs signify gold-worker, smelter, metalworkers and metal merchants dealing in: 1. seafaring merchandise of 2. iron, 3. pewter, 4. smelting operations, 5. metal implements.

The seal m0304 has a top-line text message in 6 hypertexts/hieroglyphs. Rebus readings from R. in two parts of hypertext.

m0304hypertext

Part 1 (with four hieroglyphs) signifies: supercargo, mineral ore, blacksmith, workshop, helmsman, guild-master

Sign 1 (Mahadevan concordance)1. meḍ ‘body’ rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ med ‘copper’ (Slavic) karṇaka ‘spread legs’ rebus: karṇī ‘supercargo, merchant’s representative responsible for the cargo of shipment’)

jb9ḍato =claws of crab (Santali) Rebus: dhātu ‘mineral ore’.

  1. kāru pincers, tongs. Rebus: khār खार् ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)
  2. sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.); sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) PLUS Glyph of ‘rim of jar’: kárṇaka m. ʻ projection on the side of a vessel, handle ʼ ŚBr. [kárṇa — ]Pa. kaṇṇaka — ʻ having ears or corners ʼ; (CDIAL 2831) kaṇḍa kanka; Rebus: furnace account (scribe). kaṇḍ = fire-altar (Santali); kan = copper (Tamil) khanaka m. one who digs, digger , excavator Rebus: karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk. (Telugu) káraṇa n. ʻ act, deed ʼ RV. [√kr̥1] Pa. karaṇa — n. ʻdoingʼ; NiDoc. karana, kaṁraṁna ʻworkʼ; Pk. karaṇa — n. ʻinstrumentʼ(CDIAL 2790) karṇī ‘Supercargo’. Thus, cargo handed/accounted from workshop account to supercargo PLUS karṇaka ‘helmsman, guild-master’.

Part 2 with two hieroglyhs (fish-fin PLUS rim-of-jar) signifies: metal (alloy), mint, supercargo

  1. aya ‘fish’ Rebus: aya ‘iron’ (Gujarati); ayas ‘metal’ (Rigveda)PLUS khambhaṛā ʻfinʼ rebus:kammaa ‘mint, coiner, coinage’
  1. kankha, karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ rebus: karṇī ‘Supercargo’ karṇaka ‘account,scribe’. khāṇḍā karṇika ‘metal equipment account scribe, supercargo’. See: https://www.facebook.com/srini.kalyanaraman/posts/10155616281424625

https://sarasvati97.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/

Thus, this second part of the hypertext reads: Mintwork account (to) Supercargo, a representative of the ship’s owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.

Seal m0304 is a comprehensive message composed of metalwork catalogues. The seated person in penance is a coiner: kamaḍha ‘penance’ Rebus: kammaṭa ‘mint, coiner’. He is also a blacksmith, a sodāgor karṇaka ‘a seafaring merchant’. His responsibilities as guild-master include mẽṛhẽt karba ṭhaṭṭar maṇḍā, i.e. ‘brass, iron warehouse’. In summary, the m0304 may be designated as sodāgor khāṇḍā karṇika ‘metal equipment account scribe, supercargo, seafaring merchant’ with kammaṭa ‘mint’ & mẽṛhẽt ṭhaṭṭar maṇḍā, i.e. ‘brass, iron warehouse’.

S. Kalyanaraman, Sarasvati Research Center, Dec. 5, 2016

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