Harappa Script hypertexts of two hieroglyphs with two unique ligatures

Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/glv7bwh

loa
In the entire Harappa script corpora of over 8000 inscriptions, there are only two hieroglyphs with two unique ligatures (Mahadevan concordance Signs 327 and Sign 51). This monograph deciphers these as hypertexts to signify unique metalwork categories.
One ligature is like a danta, ‘tooth’ rebus: dhatu ‘mineral ore’. The second ligature is composed of two small squares: dula ‘two’ rebus; dul ‘metal casting’.
The two hieroglyphs are:
1. loa ‘ficus glomerata’ rebus: loh ‘copper’
2. bicha ‘scorpion’ rebus: bica mẽṛhẽt ‘haematite, stone ferrite ore’.
Thus, together, the two hypertexts are read as Meluhha expressions: dul bica mẽṛhẽt dhatu ‘metal casting of iron ore’ and dul loh dhatu ‘metal casting of copper ore’.
lōhá ʻ red, copper — coloured ʼ ŚrS., ʻ made of copper ʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻ copper ʼ VS., ʻ iron ʼ MBh. [*rudh — ]Pa. lōha — m. ʻ metal, esp. copper or bronze ʼ; Pk. lōha — m. ʻ iron ʼ, Gy. pal. li°, lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) “loa” ʻ steel ʼ; Kho. loh ʻ copper ʼ; S. lohu m. ʻ iron ʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ. lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam. lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu, °hā, A. lo, B. lo, no, Or. lohā, luhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. loh, lohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho, lō ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ; Md. ratu — lō ʻ copper ʼ.*lōhala — , *lōhila — , *lōhiṣṭha — , lōhī — , laúha — ; lōhakāra — , *lōhaghaṭa — , *lōhaśālā — , *lōhahaṭṭika — , *lōhōpaskara — ; vartalōha — . Addenda: lōhá — : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻ iron ʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho; Md. lō ʻ metal ʼ. lōhakāra m. ʻ iron — worker ʼ, °rī — f., °raka — m. lex., lauhakāra — m. Hit. [lōhá — , kāra — 1]Pa. lōhakāra — m. ʻ coppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra — m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f., awāṇ. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m., Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaḷa, Bi.Bhoj. Aw.lakh. lohār, H. lohār, luh° m., G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻ coppersmith ʼ. Addenda: lōhakāra — : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f. ʻ his wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m. *lōhaśālā ʻ smithy ʼ. [lōhá — , śāˊlā — ]Bi. lohsārī ʻ smithy ʼ. (CDIAL 11158-9, 11162) lṓhita ʻ red ʼ AV., n. ʻ any red substance ʼ ŚBr., ʻ blood ʼ VS. [< rṓhita — . — *rudh — ] Pa. lōhita — in cmpds. ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ blood ʼ, °aka — ʻ red ʼ; Pk. lōhia — ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ blood ʼ; Gy. eur. lolo ʻ red ʼ, arm. nəxul ʻ blood, wound ʼ, pal. lúḥră ʻ red ʼ, inhīˊr ʻ blood ʼ, as. lur ʻ blood ʼ, lohri ʻ red ʼ Miklosich Mund viii 8; Ḍ. lōya ʻ red ʼ; Ash. leu ʻ blood ʼ, Wg. läi, Kt. lūi, Dm. lōi; Tir. ləwī, (Leech) luhī ʻ red ʼ, lọ̈̄i ʻ blood ʼ; Paš. lū f. ʻ blood ʼ, Shum. lúī, Gmb. lūi, Gaw. lō; Bshk. lōu ʻ red ʼ (AO xviii 241 < *lohuta — ); S. lohū m. ʻ blood ʼ, L. lahū m., awāṇ. làū; P. lohī ʻ red ʼ, lohū, lahū m. ʻ blood ʼ; WPah.jaun. loī ʻ blood ʼ, Ku. loi, lwe, B. lau, Or. lohu, nohu, la(h)u, na(h)u, laa, Mth. lehū, OAw. lohū m., H. lohū, lahū, lehū m., G. lohī n.; OM. lohivā ʻ red ʼ Panse Jñān 536; Si. lehe, lē ʻ blood ʼ, le ʻ red ʼ SigGr ii 460; Md. lē ʻ blood ʼ. — Sh. lēl m. ʻ blood ʼ, lōlyŭ ʻ red ʼ rather < *lōhila — .lōhitaka — .Addenda: lṓhita — : Kho. lei ʻ blood ʼ BKhoT 70, WPah.kṭg. lóu m., Garh. loi, Md. lei, lē. (CDIAL 11165)
dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu — ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu — ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]Pa. dhātu — m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu — m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron — smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); — Si. dā ʻ relic ʼ; — S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773)
vŕ̊ścika m. (vr̥ścana — m. lex.) ʻ scorpion ʼ RV., ʻ cater- pillar covered with bristles ʼ lex. [Variety of form for ʻ scorpion ʼ in MIA. and NIA. due to taboo? <-> √vraśc?] Pa. vicchika — m. ʻ scorpion ʼ, Pk. vicchia — , viṁchia — m., Sh.koh. bičh m. (< *vr̥ści — ?), Ku. bichī, A. bisā (also ʻ hairy caterpillar ʼ: — ī replaced by m. ending — ā), B. Or. bichā, Mth. bīch, Bhoj. Aw.lakh. bīchī, H. poet. bīchī f., bīchā m., G. vīchī, vĩchī m.; — *vicchuma — : Paš.lauṛ. uċúm, dar. učum, S. vichū̃ m., (with greater deformation) L.mult. vaṭhũhã, khet. vaṭṭhũha; — Pk. vicchua — , viṁchua — m., L. vichū m., awāṇ. vicchū, P. bicchū m., Or. (Sambhalpur) bichu, Mth. bīchu, H. bicchū, bīchū m., G. vīchu m.; — Pk. viccu — , °ua — , viṁcua — m., K. byucu m. (← Ind.), P.bhaṭ. biccū, WPah.bhal. biċċū m., cur. biccū, bhiḍ. biċċoṭū n. ʻ young scorpion ʼ, M. vīċũ, vĩċū m. (vĩċḍā m. ʻ large scorpion ʼ), vĩċvī, °ċvīṇ, °ċīṇ f., Ko. viccu, viṁcu, iṁcu. — N. bacchiũ ʻ large hornet ʼ? (Scarcely < *vapsi — ~ *vaspi — ).vr̥ścikapattrikā — . Addenda: vŕ̊ścika — : Garh. bicchū, °chī ʻ scorpion ʼ, A. also bichā (phonet. — s — ) AFD 218. (CDIAL 12081)
*dutīya ʻ second ʼ. 2. *dutīyā — f. ʻ second day of lunar fortnight ʼ. [~ dvitīˊya — . — dav — ]1. Pa. dutiya — , °aka — ʻ second ʼ, dutiyyatā — f. ʻ friend<-> ship ʼ; Aś. dutiya — , kq. dutīya — ʻ second ʼ, Pk. dula — , duijja — ; Woṭ. dūi m. f. adj. ʻ other ʼ; Tor. duī ʻ second ʼ; Sv. dūi ʻ other ʼ, Phal. dūi, dĭ̄; L. dūjā, mult. dūjhā, (Ju.) ḍ̠ujhā, P. dūjjā, dūjā, dūā, bhaṭ. duwwā, WPah.cur. dūã̄, bhad. duijaũ, A. dūjā; MB. duaja ʻ second ʼ, B.doj — bare ʻ a bridegroom for second time ʼ (← west ODBL 805); Or. dui, duā, dujā ʻ second ʼ, duj — bara ʻ remarried widow ʼ; Mth. dujai ʻ secondly ʼ; OAw. H. dūjā ʻ second ʼ; G. dujũ ʻ other, different ʼ; M. duj̈ā ʻ second ʼ.2. K. dŏy f. ʻ second day of lunar fortnight ʼ, P. dūj f., OAw. dūija, H. dūj f. *dutīyajanī — . Addenda: *dutīya — : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) dujjɔ ʻ second ʼ, J. dujā. (CDIAL 6402) Santali gloss: dul.
 S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Center December 1, 2016
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