Design of Harappa (Indus) Script & Meluhha language decipherment framed on Vākyapadīya


Design of Harappa (Indus) Script & Meluhha language decipherment framed on Vākyapadīya

Mari standard ca. 2400 BCE on pedestal held aloft on a culm of millet by a dignitary of Mari (a Sumerian) also signifies a one-horned young bull. This segment is from a mosaic panel inlaid with mother-of-pearl, Louvre Museum. kunda ‘young bull’ and karb ‘culm of millet’ rebus: kunda ‘fine gold’ and karba ‘iron’. Thus, gold and iron are two mineral ores processed by metalworkers of the Bronze Age civilization area which extended from Mohenjo-dro to Mari. The discovery of three pure tingots in a Haifa shipwreck with Harappa (Indus) Script inscriptions extends this civilization area along a Maritime Tin Route which extended from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel) through the intermediation by artisans/seafaring merchants of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization..

Can a culm of millet be a flagpost carrying a standard on a pedestal?

It is emphatically a hieroglyph or hypertext conveyed through orthography by a scribe-artificer of Sumer who created the mosaic artistic panel in a Mari temple to proclaim the tools-of-trade of the artisans, to ‘symbolize’ their life-activities. See:–_karb_a_culm_of_millet_holds_aloft_kunda_young_bull_to_signify_iron_and_gold

The principles for such hieroglyph rebus representation as seen on the Mari standard is consistent with the principles of language expressions explained in Vākyapadīya.

Among the 42 postulates elaborating tantra yukti (Bharata research method), two remarkable principles are mentioned: 1. Ekānta 2. Naikānta / anekānta / anekārtha.

These two principles recognize the nature of language evolution. Semantics of language result in elaboration and assignment of multiple meanings to a word or expression used in the context of social interactions and life-activity-contexts. Among the multiple meanings assigned, a particular meaning is recognized only in the context of a sentence. Bhartṛhari explains this feature of language in Vākyapadīya in the very first Canto in introductory verses to his treatise..


अनादिनिधन ब्रह्म शब्दतत्त्व यदक्षरम्

विवर्ततेर्थभावेन प्रक्रिया जगतो यत ||

एकमेव यदाम्नात भिन्न शक्तिव्यपाश्रयात्

अपृथक्त्वेपि शक्तिभ्य पृथक्त्वेनेव वर्तते ||

अध्याहितकला यस्य कालशक्तिमुपाश्रिता

जन्मादयो विकारा षड् भावभेदस्य योनय ||

एकस्य सर्वबीजस्य यस्य चेयमनेकथा

भोक्तृभोक्तव्यभेदेन भोगरूपेण च स्थिति ||

प्राप्त्युपायोनुकारश्च तस्य वेदो महर्षिभिः

एकोप्यनेकवर्त्मेव समाम्नात पृथक्पृथक् || (Vākyapadīya Canto 1.1 to 1.5)

अपोद्धारपदार्थो ये ये चार्था स्थितलक्षणा

अन्याख्येयाश्च ये शब्दा ये चापि प्रतिपादका ||

कार्यकारणभावेन योग्यभावेन च स्थिता

धर्मे ये प्रत्यये चाङ्ग सम्बन्धा साध्वसाधुषु ||

ते लिङ्गैश्च स्वशब्दैश्च शास्त्रेस्मिन्नुप वर्णिता

स्मृत्यर्थमनुगम्यन्ते केचिदेव यथागमम् || (Vākyapadīya Canto 1.24 to 1.26)

Trans. 1. That beginningless and endless One, the imperishable Brahman of which the essential nature is the Word, which manifests itself into objects and from which is the creation of the Universe.

2.which though described in the Vedas as one is divided on the basis of its powers, and although it is not different from its appears to be different,

  1. the indestructible powers of which functioning through the powers of Time become the six transformations, namely, birth and the rest – the sources of all (these) manifold objects,
  2. to which, Single One, the cause of all, belongs this manifold existence, under the forms of the enjoyer, the enjoyed and the enjoyment,
  3. of that (Brahman) the Veda is both the means of realization and the reflection and it has been handed down by the great Seers as if it consisted of many paths, although it (really) is One.

Trans. 24. to 26. In this science are described for the sake of the code rules, word-meanings which are analytically (i.e., etymologically) derived or fixed as such (by conventions, etc.), words which are indicative or descriptive, and (word-meaning) relations which are either of the nature of cause and effect or of (inseparable) identity. These which form accessories to conduct and understanding are described through their own names, or through characteristic fatures and as covering the valid and the invalid ones, some of these are also used (in non-scriptural contexts) according to rules. (Canto 1.24 to 1.26)  ( )

  1. Ekānta (categorical statement or invariable rule) On this pectoral (m1656), the categorical emphasis is on the overflowing pot (in addition to other hieroglyphs such as standard device and one-horned young bull). The categorical message relates to lo ‘overflowing’ kaṇḍa ‘pot’ rebus: lokhaṇḍa ‘metal implements’. The invariable rule of Indus Script Corpora is that inscriptions are metalwork catalogues, metalwork proclamations.
  1. Naikānta / anekānta / anekārtha (comprising statement) Using the pectoral example this tantrayukti can be demonstrated. The message conveyed: kaṇḍ khanka ‘rim of jar'(Santali) karṇaka ‘ear or rim of jar’ (Sanskrit) kaṇḍ. ‘pot’ (Santali) Rebus: karaṇika ‘writer’ (Telugu). kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali). করণিক [karaṇika] n an office-clerk, a clerk. কারণিক [kāraṇika] a pertaining to cause, causal; ex amining, judging. n. an examiner; a judge; a clerk (Bengali). खनक [Monier-Williams lexicon, p= 336,3]m. one who digs , digger , excavator MBh. iii , 640 R.

Out of the many meanings gleaned from languages of Bharata sprachbund, the context of metalwork of the Bronze Age explains the ‘meanings’ of the hieroglyphs/hypertexts on Mari Standard and on the Mohenjo-daro pectoral (m1656) as metalwork catalogues related to iron and gold.

Santali glosses

कारण [p= 274,2] n. cause , reason , the cause of anything (gen. , also often loc.) Ka1tyS3r. MBh. Mn. &c; a cause (in phil. i.e. that which is invariably antecedent to some product cf. समवा*यि-क्° , असमवा*यि-क्° , निमित्त-क्°); agency , instrumentality , condition Katha1s. cxii , 178.

कारण  a number of scribes or कायस्थs W.

káraṇa n. ʻ act, deed ʼ RV. [√kr̥1]Pa. karaṇa — n. ʻ doing ʼ; NiDoc. karanakaṁraṁna ʻ work ʼ; Pk. karaṇa — n. ʻ instrument ʼ; N. dan — karnu ʻ toothpick ʼ, kan — karnu ʻ ear — pick ʼ; B. karnākannā ʻ work, duty ʼ; M. karṇẽ n. ʻ action, deed ʼ; Si. karaṇa ʻ occupation, trade, copulation ʼ; — P. karnī f. ʻ mason’s trowel ʼ (B. D. Jain PhonPj 116 < karaṇḍa — ); H. karnī f. ʻ mason’s trowel ʼ, M. karṇī f. (CDIAL 2790)  karaṇīya ʻ to be done ʼ MBh. [Cf. karaṇi — f. ʻ action ʼ Bālar., Pk. karaṇi — f.: √kr̥1]Pa. karaṇīya — n. ʻ duty, business ʼ, Pk. karaṇīa — , °ṇijja — ; S. karṇī f. ʻ work, act ʼ, P. karnī f., Ku. karṇī; N. karni ʻ act, exp. the sexual act ʼ; Or. karaṇī ʻ work, authority ʼ; H. karnī f. ʻ act ʼ, G. karṇī f.; M. karṇī f. ʻ incantation ʼ.Addenda: karaṇīya — : WPak.kṭg. kɔrni f. ʻ act, action ʼ.(CDIAL 2791)

kāraṇa n. ʻ cause ʼ KātyŚr. [√kr̥1]Pa. kāraṇa — n. ʻ deed, cause ʼ; Aś. shah. karaṇa — , kāl. top. kālana — , gir. kāraṇa — ʻ purpose ʼ; Pk. kāraṇa — n. ʻ cause, means ʼ; Wg. (Lumsden) “kurren” ʻ retaliation ʼ, Paš. kāran IIFL iii 3, 97 with (?); S. kāraṇu m. ʻ cause ʼ; L. kārnā m. ʻ quarrel ʼ; P. kāraṇ m. ʻ cause ʼ, N. A. B. kāran, Or. kāraṇa; Mth. kāran ʻ reason ʼ, OAw. kārana, H. kāran m., G. kāraṇ n.; Si. karuṇa ʻ cause, object, thing ʼ; — postpositions from oblique cases: inst.: S. kāraṇikāṇe°ṇi ʻ on account of ʼ, L. awāṇ. kāṇ, A. kāraṇkarṇe, Or. kāraṇe, OG. kāraṇiiṁ, M. kārṇẽ; — abl.: Or. kāraṇu. kāraṇika — ; niṣkāraṇa — . Addenda: kāraṇa — : Brj. kāran ʻ on account of ʼ. (CDIAL 3057) kāraṇika m. ʻ teacher ʼ MBh., ʻ judge ʼ Pañcat. [kā- raṇa — ]
Pa. usu — kāraṇika — m. ʻ arrow — maker ʼ; Pk. kāraṇiya — m. ʻ teacher of Nyāya ʼ; S. kāriṇī m. ʻ guardian, heir ʼ; N. kārani ʻ abettor in crime ʼ; M. kārṇī m. ʻ prime minister, supercargo of a ship ʼ, kul — karṇī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ.(CDIAL 3058) कारणिक [p= 274,3] mfn. (g. काश्य्-ादि) ” investigating , ascertaining the cause ” , a judge Pan5cat. a teacher MBh. ii , 167.

कारण (p. 91) kāraṇa n (S) A cause or an efficient. Three kinds are reckoned, समवायी कारण, असमवायी कारण, निमित्त कारण Intimate and inseparable (thus, inherent or direct); not intimate or inherent (thus, proximate or indirect); instrumental or incidental. 2 A reason or ground; an object proposed; a motive or principle in general. 3 Need of; call or occasion for. Ex. आज पाऊस नाहीं म्हणून छत्रीचें का0 नाहीं. 4 Any festive occasion, as a marriage, a thread investiture &c. 5 S An instrument or a means; a material or elementary matter; an element or a rudiment. Note. कारण as CAUSE answers to Efficient–the maker or doer; to Final cause–the object or aim; to Necessitating or determining cause–the motive; to Principle or spring of action–the reason or ground. कारणीं लावणें To apply to its purpose (देह, द्रव्य, सामर्थ्य, आयुष्य, जन्म &c.)

కర్ణము (p. 253) karṇamu karṇamu. [Skt.] n. The ear. The helm of a ship చుక్కాని. కర్ణధారుడు karṇa-dhāruḍu. A helmsman or steers-man. ఓడనడుపువాడు. కర్ణపత్రము

కరణము (p. 250) karaṇamu karaṇamu. [Skt.] n. A village clerk, a writer, an accountant. వాడు కూత కరణముగాని వ్రాతకరణముకాడు he has talents for speaking but not for writing. స్థలకరణము the registrar of a district. కరణము n. Instrument, means. కొరముట్టు. An organ of sense. ఇంద్రియము. Marking or causing, as in ప్రియంకరణము endearing. స్థూలంకరణము fattening, శుభగంకరణము fortunate. కరణచతుష్టయము the mind, intellect, volition and self-consciousness. మనోబుద్ధిచిత్తాహంకారములు. కరణత్రయము thought, word and deed. మనస్సు. వాక్కు, కర్మము. త్రికరణశుద్ధిగా completely, absolutely, entirely. కరణీయము karaṇīyamu. adj. Fit to be performed, worthy to be done చేయదగిన. కరణికము or కరణీకము karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk.

கருணீகம் karuṇīkam, n. < karaṇa. [T. karaṇikamu.] Office of village accountant or karṇam; கிராமக்கணக்குவேலை.கருணீகன் karuṇīkaṉ, n. < id. 1. Village accountant; கிராமக்கணக்கன். கடுகை யொருமலை யாகக் . . . காட்டுவோன் கருணீகனாம் (அறப். சத. 86). 2. A South Indian caste of accountants; கணக்குவேலைபார்க்கும் ஒருசாதி.


करण (p. 78) karaṇa m (Popular form of कर्ण S amongst artisans. ) The hypotenuse of a triangle, or the diagonal of a quadrangular figure. कारणी or कारणीक (p. 91) kāraṇī or kāraṇīka a (कारण S) That causes, conducts, carries on, manages. Applied to the prime minister of a state, the supercargo of a ship &c. 2 Useful, serviceable, answering calls or occasions.

कर्णकः Ved.  A prominence; handle. कर्णक [p= 257,2] m. (ifc. f(आ).) a prominence or handle or projection on the side or sides (of a vessel &c ) , a tendril S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. कर्णिका  f. a round protuberance (as at the end of a reed or a tube) Sus3r. f. central point , centre Car. Ba1lar.

कर्णक m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 , 3

कर्णिक [p= 257,2] mfn. having ears , having large or long ears W.; कार्णिक   mf(ई)n. relating to the ear W.

कार्णिक [p= 275,2] having a helm W.; m. a steersman W.; m. pl. N. of a people VP. कर्णिक a. 1 Having ears. -2 Having a helm. -कः A steersman; कर्णिन् a. 1 Having ears; Av.1.1.2. -2 Long- eared. -3 Barbed (as an arrow). -m. 1 An ass. -2 A helmsman. -3 An arrow furnished with knots &c.

करण [p=254] clever , skilful RV. i , 119 , 7m. a helper , companion AV. vi , 46 , 2 ; xv , 5 , 1-6 ; xix , 57 , 3; m. writer , scribe W.; m. (in Gr.) a sound or word as an independent part of speech (or as separated from the context ; in this sense usuallyn.) Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 3-1 , 41 Pat. Comm. on RPra1t.  कर्णिका f. a pen , small brush L.


Sarasvati Research Center

November 30, 2016


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