Harappa Script hypertext on Mari standard — karb, ‘a culm of millet’ holds aloft kunda ‘young bull’ to signify iron and gold

Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/jed2wj4

One-horned young bull is a recurrent hypertext on Harappa (Indus) Script Corpora. Harappa Scrip hypertext on Mari standard, signifies one-horned young bull on a pedestal held aloft on a flagpost — culm of millet. The ‘culm of millet’ as a flagpost is a clear signifier that the narrative is on the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization Meluhha writing system.

Image result for one-horned bull sealMohenjo-daro seal. Source:http://www.sindhishaan.com/gallery/manuscripts.html Harappa Script inscription on seal signifies hypertext of one-horned young bull (with rings on neck, pannier and one horn) + standard device (kõdār ‘turner’ + samgara ‘manager’+ text of inscription: dATu ‘cross’ rebus: dhatu ‘red (copper) mineral ore’ + maṇḍā ‘raised platform, stool’ Rebus: maṇḍā ‘warehouse’).

mariMari standard on pedestal held aloft on a culm of millet by a dignitary of Mari (a Sumerian) also signifies a one-horned young bull.

Decipherment of the Script Corpora result in the identical readings on the seal with inscription and on mosaic panel of Mari– hieroglyphs:

kunda ‘young bull’ and karb ‘culm of millet’ rebus: kunda ‘fine gold’ and karba ‘iron’. Thus, gold and iron are two mineral ores processed by metalworkers of the Bronze Age civilization area which extended from Mohenjo-dro to Mari.

Related imagemari3

kunda, mukunda, kharva are two of the nine treasures of Kubera. I suggest that the treasure categories are material resources and produced artifacts of Bronze Age: kunda signifies ‘fine gold’; mukunda signifies ‘halberd, combined spear and battle-axe’; kharva rebus: karba signifies ‘iron’.

In Harappa (Indus) Script, two hieroglyphs signify kunda ‘fine gold’ and karba ‘iron’. The hieroglyphs read rebus in Meluhha words are:  खोंड (p. 122) khōṇḍa m A young bull, a bullcalf) one-horned young bull and karb ‘culm of millet’ (Punjabi), respectively. (NOTE: कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ is a phonetic variant of a worker with gold and lathe: kunda ‘fine gold, lathe.’ खोंड  [khōṇḍa] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) खोंडा [khōṇḍā] m A कां बळा of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood; खोंडरूं (p. 216) [ khōṇḍarūṃ ] n A contemptuous form of खोंडा in the sense of कांबळा -cowl. (Marathi) khōṇḍa A tree of which the head and branches are broken off, a stock or stump Rebus: kõdār ‘turner’ (Bengali); kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali). koḍiyarings on neck‘, koḍ ‘horn’ rebus: koḍ ‘workshop’. కోడియ (p. 326) kōḍiya కోడె (p. 326) kōḍe  [Tel.] n. A bullcalf. kodeduda. A young bull (Telugu) (NOTE: the hieroglyph is a hypertext composed of young bull, one horn, pannier (a कां बळा ‘sack’ of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood), rings on neck.)

Standard device and gold fillet with standard device as hieroglyphs of Harappa Script. Lathe is part of the hypertext (together with a portable furnace, dotted circles) normally shown in front of a young bull on Harappa (Indus) inscriptions as a phonetic determinant of kunda ‘lathe’ rebus:kundār ‘lathe-worker’ AND kunda, kundaṇa ‘fine gold’).

kunda m. ʻ a turner’s lathe ʼ lex. [Cf. *cunda — 1]N. kũdnu ʻ to shape smoothly, smoothe, carve, hew ʼ, kũduwā ʻ smoothly shaped ʼ; A. kund ʻ lathe ʼ, kundiba ʻ to turn and smooth in a lathe ʼ, kundowā ʻ smoothed and rounded ʼ; B. kũd ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdā, kõdā ʻ to turn in a lathe ʼ; Or. kū˘nda ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdibā, kū̃d° ʻ to turn ʼ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ʻ lathe ʼ); Bi. kund ʻ brassfounder’s lathe ʼ; H. kunnā ʻ to shape on a lathe ʼ, kuniyā m. ʻ turner ʼ, kunwā m. kundakara — .(CDIAL 3295) kundakara m. ʻ turner ʼ W. [Cf. *cundakāra — : kunda — 1, kará — 1] A. kundār, B. kũdār, °ri, Or. kundāru; H. kũderā m. ʻ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes ʼ, °rī f., kũdernā ʻ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe ʼ.(CDIAL 3297)

కుందనము (p. 289) kundanamu kundanamu. [Tel.] n. Solid gold, fine gold. అపరంజి. అపరంజి (p. 62) aparañji aparanji. [Skt.] n. Fine refined gold. కుందనము, పదివన్నె బంగారు, ఉదిరి. అపరంజి (p. 1397) aparañji [H. from Arabic Afran -jiya which means ‘ foreign ‘ and perhaps originates in that word which is derived from ‘ foraneus, ‘ external.] n. Fine gold. అపరంజికాను lit. ‘ foreign coin.’ A Venetian sequin. ఉదిరి (p. 157) udiri  [Tel.] adj. Fine, pure. Refined. తప్తము, ఉదరి బంగారు fine gold అపరంజి R. vii. 184.  పదియార్వన్నె పసిండి fine gold. குந்தனம் kuntaṉam , n. < T. kundanamu. 1. Interspace for enchasing or setting gems in a jewel; இரத்தினம் பதிக்கும் இடம். குந்தனத்தி லழுத்தின . . . ரத்தினங்கள் (திவ். திருநெடுந். 21, வ்யா. பக். 175). 2. Gold, fine gold; தங்கம். (சங். அக.) “Sequin (the French form of Ital. zecchino, zecchino d’oro), the name of a Venetian gold coin, first minted about 1280, and in use until the fall of the Venetian Republic. It was worth about nine shillings. It bore on the obverse a figure of St Mark blessing the banner of the republic, held by a kneeling doge, and on the reverse a figure of Christ. Milan and Genoa also issued gold sequins. The word in Italian was formed from zecca, Span. zeca, a mint, an adaptation of Arabic sikka, a die for coins. In the sense of “newly-coined,” the Hindi or Persian sikka, anglicised sicca, was specifically used of a rupee, containing more silver than the East India Company’s rupee, coined in 1793 by the Bengal government. ” (1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica). Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold. Tu. kundaṇpure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold.(DEDR 1725)

Ka. kunda a pillar of bricks, etc. Tu. kunda pillar, post. Te. kunda id. Malt. kunda block, log. ? Cf. Ta. kantu pillar, post.(DEDR 1723)

Ta. kuntam haystack. Ka. kuttaṟi a stack, rick.(DEDR 1724)

Ta. kuntāli, kuntāḷi pickaxe. Ma. kuntāli, kūntāli id. Kurub. (LSB 1.11) kidli a spade. Ko. kuda·y hoe. Ka. guddali, gudli a kind of pickaxe, hoe. Koḍ. guddali hoe with spade-like blade. Tu. guddali, guddoli, (B-K.) guddoḷi a kind of pickaxe; guddolipuni to dig with a pickaxe. Te. guddali, (VPK) guddili, guddela, guddēli, guddēlua hoe; guddalincu to hoe. Nk. kudaḷ spade. Go. (G. Mu.) kudaṛ spade, axe; (Ma. M. Ko.) guddaṛ spade, hoe (Voc. 749); (LuS.) goodar hoe. Konḍa gudeli hoe-like instrument for digging. Malt. qodali a spade. Cf. 1719 Ta. kuttu. / Cf. Skt. kuddāla spade, hoe; Turner, CDIAL, no. 3286.(DEDR 1722)

50 zecchini from the reign of Paolo Renier (1779–89), penultimate Doge of Venice. This denomination (on average) weighs 192.5 grams (6.19 ozt) and measures 76 millimetres (3.0 in).Zecca (mint), Republic of VeniceNational Numismatic Collection, National Museum of American History.  Zecca of Venice has a diameter of 76mm and weighs 192.5g

Halberd-axe head with the head of a mouflon. Luristan bronze. late 2nd millennium–early 1st millennium BC. From Amlash, Gilan, Iran.

குண்டகம் kuṇṭakam , n. < T. guṇṭaka. Garden hoe, scuffler; மண்பறிக்குங் கருவிவ

Image result for halberdముకుందబల్లెము mukunda-ballemu. n. A halberd or broad bladed spear. ఒకయీటె, a combined spear and battleaxe. ముకుందుడు mukundu-ḍu. n. A name of Vishṇu. मुकु [p= 819,2] m. = मुक्ति (a word formed to explain , मुकुन्-द as ” giver of liberation ” ; others assume मुकुम् ind. ) L.

kār-kund (corrup. of P کار کن) adj. Adroit, clever, experienced. 2. A director, a manager; (Fem.) کار کنده kār-kundaʿh. (Pashto) This is a compound expression  khār  खार् PLUS kunda — ‘blacksmith, iron worker’ PLUS kunda ‘turner’. A possible variant of Samskritam compound expression: kundakara m. ʻ turner ʼ W. [Cf. *cundakāra — : kunda — 1, kará — 1]A. kundār, B. kũdār, °ri, Or. kundāru; H. kũderā m. ʻ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes ʼ, °rī f., kũdernā ʻ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe ʼ. (CDIAL 3297)

khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü  लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith’s furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith’s wife (Gr.Gr. 34).  लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith’s hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji  or -güjü । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith’s furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü  a blacksmith’s smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü  । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith’s daughter. -koṭu । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü -। लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith’s daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father’s profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), ‘blacksmith’s earth,’ i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith’s son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wānवान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith’s shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil. (Kashmiri)

Frieze of a mother-of-pearl inlaid mosaic panel from Mari, Ancient Near East, Louvre Museum

The Mari standard is held aloft by a flagpost which is neither a pillar nor a wood stalk, but karb, ‘a culm of millet'(Punjabi): kaḍambá, kalamba — 1, m. ʻ end, point, stalk of a pot- herb ʼ lex. [See kadambá — ]B. kaṛamba ʻ stalk of greens ʼ; Or. kaṛambā, °mā stalks and plants among stubble of a reaped field ʼ; H. kaṛbī, karbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.); M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ. — Or. kaḷama ʻ a kind of firm — stemmed reed from which pens are made ʼ infl. by H. kalam ʻ pen ʼ ← Ar.? (CDIAL 2653) Rebus: Ta. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native metal. Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron. (DEDR 192).Tu. kari soot, charcoal; kariya black; karṅka state of being burnt or singed; karṅkāḍuni to burn (tr.); karñcuni to be burned to cinders; karñcāvuni to cause to burn to cinders; kardů black; karba iron; karvāvuni to burn the down of a fowl by holding it over the fire; karṇṭuni to be scorched; karguḍe a very black man; fem. karguḍi, kargi. Kor. (T.) kardi black. (DEDR 1278a).Related image

Image result for culm of millet

Image result for culm of milletImage result for culm of milletImage result for culm of milletBajra, pearl millet culmImage result for culm of milletImage result for culm of millet

Technical description

  • Frise d’un panneau de mosaïque

    Vers 2500 – 2400 avant J.-C.

    Mari, temple d’Ishtar

  • Coquille, schiste
  • Fouilles Parrot, 1934 – 1936

    AO 19820 Room 1 b
    Vitrine 7 : Epoque des dynasties archaïques de Sumer, vers 2900 – 2340 avant J.-C. Antiquités de Mari (Moyen-Euphrate)


    Image result for procession mari


These inlaid mosaics, composed of figures carved in mother-of-pearl, against a background of small blocks of lapis lazuli or pink limestone, set in bitumen, are among the most original and attractive examples of Mesopotamian art. It was at Mari that a large number of these mosaic pieces were discovered. Here they depict a victory scene: soldiers lead defeated enemy captives, naked and in chains, before four dignitaries.

A victory scene

The pieces that make up this shell mosaic composition were found scattered on the floor of the Temple of Ishtar, and therefore the reconstruction of the original panel is based on guesswork, all the more so in that the shell pieces are missing. The shell figures were arranged on a wooden panel covered with a layer of bitumen. The whole composition was organized in several registers, and the frame of the panel was emphasized by a double red and white line of stone and shell. The spaces between the figures were filled by small tiles of gray-black shale. The panel depicts the end of a battle, with soldiers leading their stripped and bound captives before dignitaries. The soldiers wear helmets, carry spears or adzes, and are dressed in kaunakes (fleecy skirts or kilts) and scarves. The dignitaries wear kaunakes and low fur hats, and each carries a long-handled adze on the left shoulder. Their leader appears to be a shaven-headed figure: stripped to the waist and wearing kaunakes, he carries a standard showing a bull standing on a pedestal. The lower register, on the right, features traces of a chariot drawn by onagers, a type of wild ass.

The art of mosaic

Many fragments of mosaic panels were discovered in the temples of Mari. Used to decorate the soundboxes of musical instruments, “gaming tables,” or simple rectangular wooden panels, the pieces of mosaic seen here were like scattered pieces of a jigsaw puzzle when they were found. Mosaic pictures were particularly prized in Mesopotamia. Fragments can be found in Kish, Tello, and Tell Asmar, in Mesopotamia, and in Ebla, Syria, where these extremely fragile works of art did not survive the destruction of the buildings in which they were housed. Only the Standard of Ur (Mesopotamia) has been preserved, an object which offers many points of comparison with the present work, since one side of this artifact is devoted to the theme of war. We know that the fragments discovered at Mari were manufactured locally, for the workshop of an engraver using mother-of-pearl was found in the palace. By the delicacy of their carving and engraving, the mother-of-pearl figures produced in this capital of a kingdom on the Middle Euphrates distinguish it from other centers of artistic production; they sometimes even surpass works of art produced in the Mesopotamian city of Ur. One of the distinctive features of Mari is the diversity of the scenes depicted: battles and scenes of offerings made to the gods, religious scenes with priests and priestesses, and sacrifices of rams.These scenes provide us with invaluable insights into the social, political, and religious life of Mari.


Contenau G., Manuel d’archéologie orientale depuis les origines jusqu’à Alexandre : les découvertes archéologiques de 1930 à 1939, IV, Paris : Picard, 1947, pp. 2049-2051, fig. 1138
Parrot A., Les fouilles de Mari, première campagne (hiver 1933-1934), Extr. de : Syria, 16, 1935, paris : P. Geuthner, pp. 132-137, pl. XXVIII
Parrot A., Mission archéologique de Mari : vol. I : le temple d’Ishtar, Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, LXV, Paris : Institut français d’archéologie du Proche-Orient, 1956, pp. 136-155, pls. LVI-LVII[unquote]


Mari artifacts:

[quote]This shell plaque was found in the palace of Mari. It is dated circa 2500 B.C. The Louvre correctly identified it as a Sumerian soldier because the helmet, shoulder armor, and battleaxe, is the same equipment used by soldiers on the Standard of Ur. However, his outfit also contains some Akkadian elements. The knotted bun on the back of the helmet is an Akkadian design (see The Gold Helmet of the King of Kish). The fringe of his skirt is broad, like the leafy fringe on a Sumerian skirt, but it is also long, like the fringe on the skirt of an Akkadian soldier. As explained in Weapons: the Tombs of Ur, he is not just a soldier, he is a king. He is a Sumerian King of Kish, possibly Eannatum, the ruler of Sumer and Akkad. He is in full regalia, with some accoutrements that are Sumerian and some that are Akkadian. There is an important political reason for this, as will later be explained.

Limestone plaque found in the palace of Mari: This is a very important artifact because it is
the first depiction of siege warfare in the ancient world. On the left, a soldier stands behind
(and beneath) a large curved shield made of bundled reeds. The shield is quite cumbersome and it would be completely impractical on an open battlefield where rapid mobility is required. Instead, the shield is designed for siege warfare, for battles fought at the base of a city wall. The curved top protects the soldier from missiles being thrown down by the defenders on the top of the wall. Beside the soldier is an archer shooting a flaming arrow. This is one of the earliest depictions of a bow and arrow being used in combat. Moreover, it is a “recurved bow”, with tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is strung, which gives the arrow
greater speed and power. Flaming arrows were not used against infantry formations, instead they were used to set buildings on fire. Notice how the archer is shooting the arrow straight up, in order to clear the city wall. Meanwhile the body of an enemy defender (who is portrayed naked to show he is dead) tumbles down from the top of the wall. Taken all together, it is quite a dynamic scene.

I suggest that these men are not the soldiers of Mari. They are Sumerian.

The Standard of Mari:  

The figure in the middle of the top register is the king, drawn larger than the other men to signify his greater importance. He holds a battle ensign featuring a bull statuette. The king’s soldiers are lined up behind him, and in front of him are more soldiers and a few prisoners. The bottom register is a confusing array of soldiers, prisoners, a chariot, and a clay pot (!?). The standard was found in the temple of Ishtar, in pieces scattered on the floor, which would account for the arbitrary arrangement of the figures. Below is shown a different arrangement, with each soldier escorting a bound prisoner (like on the Standard of Ur) which would explain why the soldiers have their arms hanging in the air.

Soldiers and their prisoners.

King on the Standard of Mari. He has a shaven face and head. This is how Sumerian kings were usually portrayed, like on the Standard of Ur. The kings of Mari always have beards.

One of the king’s men. The fringed skirt tied in the back is the same that is shown on the siege plaque displayed above, as is the spotted garment. On the Standard of Ur, the spotted garment is obviously a full length cloak; here is seems to be a sash, the kind worn by Akkadian soldiers. So it’s a Sumerian uniform with an Akkadian twist. He wears a flared hat. The hat is definitely Akkadian and probably symbolic of high office, much like the ceremonial helmet of the King of Kish. Although it’s possible that Sumerians also wore this type of hat, it was predominately worn by the Akkadians. The soldier is clean-shaven, which is typically Sumerian, but his hair is very long in the back, which is typical of Akkadian royalty. So now we have a confusing combination of Sumerian and Akkadian styles. (The minutiae of Mesopotamian clothing as related to the Standard of Mari is described on a separate page of this website.)

Soldiers on the Standard of Mari. They wear Sumerian helmets. The soldier on the right is clean‑shaven, like other soldiers on the standard. I would suggest that they are Sumerians. The other two soldiers in this picture have beards, but no mustaches. The Sumerians were sometimes shown bearded, but with the usual combination of beard and mustache. Although I have never heard it mentioned before, the beard without a mustache is a distinctive feature of Mariote men. So there’s no way around it, the soldiers are men from Mari.

Mari beards.
On the standard, we have soldiers from Sumer and Mari in the same army and wearing uniforms that are a blend of Sumerian and Akkadian styles. This is surprising because Sumerian and Mariote soldiers were not accustomed to fighting in the same army. They usually fought against each other.

So why are they shown as allies on the Standard of Mari?

There’s really only one good answer to the question: It’s because this is the coalition army of the King of Kish, the king of kings, the ruler of Sumer and Akkad.

Although subtle and not noticeable at first, he is wearing the stylized beard of a Mari man. The beard shows up better on another shell inlay (below) that was found in the Tombs of Ur. Although a Sumerian king was usually shown with a shaven face, these bearded figures
depict how a Sumerian King of Kish portrayed himself to his subjects in Mari.

In conclusion, I suggest that if so many ED III Mari artifacts look Sumerian, it’s because
they really are Sumerian.[unquote]



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